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From the Townsend Letter
December 2007


Oxygen Homeostasis:
Oxygen, Inflammation, and Castor-Cise Liver Detox
by Majid Ali, MD

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Oxygen begot inflammation. Inflammation begot the liver. The liver begot the detox pathways for endogenous and exogenous poisons. Primordial spherules forerunners of modern cells formed, existed, and perished in the highly acidic and reducing toxic soup. They consumed and thrived on the waste they created. Waste disposal was not an ecologic issue then. All that changed when free oxygen in the ambient air accumulated and brought forth a "reducing-to-oxidizing" shift on the surface of the planet Earth. Then oxygen became the primary energy generator of human biology by organizing the development of complex molecular pathways. In those roles, oxygen also became the primary waste producer. Oxygen is the ultimate Dr. Jekyll/Mr. Hyde, a spin doctor par excellence.1-4 Not unexpectedly, it created dangerous oxyradicals as it differentiated, shaped, and fine-tuned the energetic chemistry of the human cells. Waste production created the need for waste removal. Oxygen organized the designs for those systems as well.

Sometimes oxygen clears waste by directly disintegrating it. We have white beaches because oxygen oxidizes the black and brown organic matter washed on them, turning it into carbon dioxide, water, and minerals. In other instances, waste disposal requires a complex system for rapid disintegration of macro-molecules. To that purpose, oxygen evolved the inflammatory response. The kaleidoscopic mosaic of inflammation involves the following: (1) redox (oxidant/antioxidant) regulation; (2) acid-alkali balance; (3) clotting-unclotting equilibrium; (4) sugar-based recognition systems; (5) lipid-based intelligence systems; (6) protein-based systems of tissue construction; (7) enzyme-based systems of deconstruction (including proteases and protease-inhibitors); and (8) scavenger cells.1,5,6 Oxygen integrated the development, differentiation, and maintenance of those systems most prominently in one body organ, the liver. Highly specialized scavenger cells in the liver are called the Kupffer cells. This, succinctly stated, is my evolutionary perspective of oxygen, inflammation, and the liver.

The above evolutionary view integrates all known aspects of the epidemiologic, experimental, biochemical, and clinical data concerning liver disease. Specifically, it clarifies clinical thinking regarding the following: (1) the pathogenetic mechanisms of liver diseases; (2) the roles of pathologic inflammatory responses in ecologic, nutritional, and autoimmune disorders; (3) the response of the liver to microbial infections in organs other than the liver; (4) objectivity and quantifiabilty of the degrees of dysfunction of liver detox pathways; and (5) scientifically sound liver detox and oxystatic strategies for reversing disease. Later, I cite the findings of pertinent experimental studies to further shed light on the relationships between oxygen, inflammation, and the liver. Below, I review aspects of anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the liver to provide a framework of reference for presenting my clinical preferences for liver detox.

The Liver Ecosystem
Nature is generous. Nature is stingy. Nature creates ample reserves. Nature is a hard taskmaster. Nature is forgiving. Nature is unforgiving. Those are all aspects of nature's grand plan of economy. In matters of human health, next to the bowel, the liver is the most glorious mirror of nature's sense of economy.

The liver weighs two-and-one-half to three pounds, yet it is the primary detox and metabolic organ of the body. It not only nourishes 50-100 trillion cells in the body, it is also responsible for keeping them clean and healthy. Thus, it comes as no surprise that the liver is the most frequently stressed organ of the body. One of the many wonders of nature is enormous functional reserve of the liver. When 90% of the liver mass is removed in dog experiments, the dogs stay healthy. In my biopsy work, I was more impressed by the regenerating capacity of liver cells than that in any other organ.

The Eagle and the Liver
The ancient Greeks understood the liver's astounding ability to regenerate. To punish the titan Prometheus for his transgression, the supergod Zeus had him chained to a mountain and sent an eagle to lunch at the prisoner's liver. Prometheus did not do too badly, however, as far as his liver was concerned. The liver grew back every day by the time the eagle returned.

Mother Nature has designed the liver in a most extraordinarily loving way. It has bestowed upon it a rare distinction: the liver gets its oxygen and nourishment from two sources. One face of each liver cell fronts oxygen-rich blood from the heart; the other is covered with nutrient-rich blood from the bowel. To fully appreciate nature's benevolence, one needs to recognize that arterial blood from the heart brings 40% to 50% of the required oxygen, while that from the bowel delivers 50% to 60% of the liver's oxygen supply. That remarkable fact explains why pathologists rarely see liver infarction (large areas of cell death). The liver cell has yet another face that fronts ultramicroscopic bile passages.

Why Is the Liver Included in the Base Trio of the Trios of Human Ecosystems?
Listed below are several metabolic, energetic, and detoxification distinctions of the liver to support my inclusion of it in the base trio of The Pyramid of Trios of the Human Ecosystem (Figure 1). In summary, the liver is all of the following:

1. the master detox organ;
2. the master metabolic organ;
3. the master nutrition organ;
4. the master protein producer;
5. the master fat metabolizer;
6. the master sugar handler;
7. the master vitamin producer and processor organ;
8. the master mineral regulator organ;
9. the master hormone modulator;
10. the aging-gene organ; and, next to the bowel,
11. the master life span organ.

Figure 1. Schematic Representation of the Place of the Liver in the Trio of Trios of Human Ecosystems for Preserving and/or Restoring Oxygen Homeostasis

Liver's Place

The dual blood supply to the liver is a master stroke of nature's infatuation with Dr. Jekyll/Mr. Hyde architectural designs. The blood from the bowel not only brings nutrients and oxygen, but also a payload of natural and synthetic toxins, chemicals, and toxic metals. It is the responsibility of the liver to rid the entering blood of all toxic organic acids as well as other toxins before the blood can spread the toxins throughout the body.

Liver Detoxification
It is one of the profound ironies of prevailing drug medicine that there is no concept of liver detox among liver specialists. Treatment of most liver diseases in the hands of gastroenterologists and hepatologists is confined to the use of immune-suppressive therapies, such as steroids, chemotherapy drugs, large doses of agents such as interferon, or liver transplants. Otherwise, medical texts recommend "supportive treatment," which is a euphemism for symptom suppression with drugs. In most patients with nutritional, ecologic, immune, and heavy metal toxicity disorders, liver blood tests are often considered "within normal limits," and no attempt is made to prescribe nutritional, herbal, and natural detox therapies.

In contrast to gastroenterologists and internists, naturopaths nearly all develop an abiding lifelong interest in this organ. That is so because the use of liver-friendly nutrients, herbs, and liver detox is emphasized as the core strategy in their schools. They recognize the clinical benefits of liver detox therapies, not only in patients with known liver diseases but also with chronic immune, nutritional, and ecologic disorders. Many of them are awkward in describing their concepts of the structure and function of the liver. And yet, their clinical results are superior to those obtained with drug therapies, except in cases of advanced liver failure.

The Liver Has a Guardian Angel: the Bowel
The above statement is based on my work in surgery, pathology, and integrative medicine over four decades. As a pathologist, I examined more than 14,000 bowel biopsies, 5,000 stomach biopsies, and 2,000 liver biopsies. In my clinical work, I have cared for about 10,000 patients with chronic health disorders. I realized some individuals recovered from chemical and microbiologic liver injury expeditiously, while others developed long-lasting liver disorders. I also recognized people in the latter group suffered from mold allergy, adverse foods reactions, prolonged bowel transit time, increased bowel permeability, and altered gut microbiota. Those observations led me to conclude a robust alimentary tract guards the liver against indolent liver injury. Those observations also led me to propose the schema of the Pyramid of Trios of the Human Ecosystem (Figure 1).7,8

The study of urinary excretion of hippuric acid offers an unusual opportunity to explore the relationships between the bowel and liver ecosystems for four reasons: (1) it is produced in the liver by a conjugation detox reaction (of benzoate with glycine) and so reflects the efficiency of this detox pathway; (2) benzoate is produced in the gut by bacterial deamination of the amino acid phenylalanine and so reflects the state of the bowel ecology; (3) benzoate is present in many food preservatives and gives an indication of total chemical load borne by the liver; and (4) pantothenic acid is the rate-limiting factor in its production and so gives an estimate of the nutritional status of the individual. For these reasons, I examined the relationships between increased urinary excretion of hippuric acid and increased urinary excretion of seven bowel-derived mycotoxins in 135 patients (Table 1). Note that increasing values for urinary excretion of hippuric acid generally correlate with increased excretion of mycotoxins, indicating impaired ability of the liver to effectively cope with increased mycotoxin load produced by altered gut microbiota. It also furnishes biochemical evidence of my view that the bowel serves as the guardian angel of the liver.

From the Bowel to the Brain
The sick have a way of crystallizing the truth about illness. A fibromyalgia patient once remarked, "Dr. Ali, for me, it's bowel to the brain. I eat, and I get brain-fogged." I cannot think of a more succinct and elegant way of stating the essential protective role of the liver. Medical students are taught the same thing in many convoluted ways. (Perhaps that's why they cannot seem to retain it when they leave medical schools.) In the medical jargon, when the liver fails and toxins bypass it to reach the brain, the problems of mood, memory, and mentation are designated as hepatic encephalopathy. It is regrettable that so many physicians laugh at the concept of liver detoxification and readily label the patients hypochondriacs when the cause of the patient's suffer is liver toxicity. If the liver did not filter the blood of its toxins, and the blood from the bowel were to hit the brain directly, everyone would be brain-fogged at all times. I present this subject at length in Oxygen and Aging (2000).9

Table 1. Relationship Between Increased Urinary Excretion of Hippuric Acid and Increased Urinary Excretion of Bowel-Derived Mycotoxins*

Hippuric Acid Excretion mol/mol creatinine Number of Bowel-Derived Mycotoxins Detected mol/mol creatinine
Group of Patients
3 and over
Controls (n=66)**
Hippuric acid value below 400
Hippuric acid value 400-600
Hippuric acid value 600-800
Hippuric acid value >800

*Mycotoxins profile included tartaric acid, arabinose, citramalic acid, three furan compounds, and carboxycitric acid
**Normal hippuric acid excretion

I emphasize the bowel/liver dynamics here to underscore the importance of undertaking robust measures to restore bowel ecology in all instances of liver detoxification. I discuss this subject at length in Integrative Nutritional Medicine, the fifth volume of The Principles and Practice of Medicine.10

Castor-Cise: A Time for Healing
Once all indigenous cultures had healing rituals that provided people with purpose and structure for physical and spiritual renewal. A language of silence was an integral part of most rituals. We now live "fast." What the benefits are of the time saved is unclear to me. Those healing rituals have fallen victim to the pace of modern life. Today we need healing rituals far more than ever. In clinical medicine, I recognize the absolute need for regular periods of physical and spiritual renewal that include the language of silence, physical exercise, and detoxification measures.

We live in the age of toxic environment, toxic foods, and toxic thoughts. These toxicities create a state of molecular and cellular burn-out. From the evolutionary perspective of oxygen/inflammation/liver dynamics presented above, it should be evident that the liver bears the brunt of such toxicities. For that reason, I consider it essential to diligently assess the health of the liver in all my patients with chronic and subacute disorders, and I recommend a robust liver detox program to serve my overarching goal of restoring oxygen homeostasis.

Castor-Cise is my term for an integrated program that includes the following: (1) a castor oil liver detox, based on the ancient Indian tradition; (2) a castor oil bowel detox, based on the ancient Chinese tradition; (3) a sesame oil oral detox, based on its empirical benefits; and (4) limbic, non-competitive, meditative exercise. Below, I describe my own routine of Castor-Cise three times a week. I regularly prescribe it for all my patients and strongly urge them to be innovative once they have learned the basic routine. For most patients, I also recommend the following: (1) a lemon juice-maple syrup "spicy lemonade" fluid fast once weekly, which can be done on a scheduled Castor-Cise day; and (2) Dr. Ali's breakfast five days a week (comprising two tablespoons of granular lecithin taken with two tablespoons of freshly ground flaxseed and high-quality protein powder mixed with 16 ounces of organic vegetable juice). See my column in the May 2007 issue of the Townsend Letter11 and Integrative Nutritional Medicine, the fifth volume of The Principles and Practice of Medicine.10

Dr. Ali's Castor-Cise
On weekend mornings, I warm two tablespoons of castor oil in a large spoon by flame. I apply the oil liberally to the following areas: (1) the liver area (the rib cage on the right side, extending from mid-line in front to the mid-line behind); (2) the front and sides of the abdomen; (3) shoulders; and (4) face (a light smear). For the next two hours, I stay in a limbic state, a meditative state free of the noise of a cluttered mind (see The Cortical Monkey and Healing [1999] for detailed description).12 I do not use the telephone or watch TV. Low volume music is acceptable at times. I prepare my breakfast as described above (usually 60 ounces of my protein shake) and take nutrient and herbal supplements with eight to ten ounces of the shake at a time. Intermittently, I engage in limbic exercise (gentle, non-competitive, meditative, described in my book The Ghoraa and Limbic Exercise).13 I favor rebounding (jumping jacks on a rug wearing thick socks), rug-running, and light weights (ten to fifteen pounds). There is no sweating, huffing, or puffing, nor any sore muscles (crucial for a 67-year-old with much work to do). In between segments of exercise, I practice limbic breathing (see my column in July 2007 issue of the Townsend Letter14) and try to be in a spiritual state (see my book The Crab, Oxygen, and Cancer [2007]15 for practical suggestions). I often work on my computer as well during Castor-Cise. Writing comes easier in the limbic state. At the end, I shave, shower, and get ready for the rest of my day. My shower begins with hot water and end with a sudden burst of cold water. My sense is that the clinical benefits of the ancient practice of sauna, followed by jumping in very cold water, accrue from improvement of autonomic equilibrium. Each castor period is free of the demands of a cluttered mind.

Castor-Walk, Castor Jog, Castor Gym, and Castor Sleep
There is a difference between teachers and gurus. True teachers want their students to reach beyond their scope. Gurus do not want their disciples to escape their servitude. In the spirit of teachers, I ask my patients first to learn correctly Dr. Ali's Castor-Cise and then innovate and modify the basic Castor-Cise routine to enhance its value for themselves personally. For example, one can apply castor oil before going for a walk ("Castor-Walk"), a jog ("Castor-Jog"), or a work-out in a gym ("Castor-Gym"). Many of my patients sleep with castor oil application ("Castor-Sleep"). Other patients do one, two, three, or all components of Castor-Cise, which can be done on any given day, depending upon availability of time, mood, or inclination. Again, the crucial point is that each castor period is free of the demands of a cluttered mind.

The LEMP Spicy Lemonade Fluid Fast
Lemon juice, maple syrup, cayenne, and Epsom salt have been used for centuries in various formulations for combined liver and bowel detox procedures. Below, I describe the adaptation which my colleagues at the Institute of Integrative Medicine, New York, and I have used for several years with empirical benefits. The procedure is simple and, when done correctly (in a prayerful / meditative state), does not cause any discomfort. The old "begin low-build slow principle" is as applicable here as in other publications for medical education. We do not find it necessary to alter the use of prescription medications for our patients when they engage in the LEMP fast. We do reduce by 50% the nutrient and herbal supplements during the first day of the fast.

I do not recommend a LEMP fast for periods longer than one day at a time, since I have encountered adverse responses with extended fast/flushes. The amount of needed Epsom salt varies with the condition of individuals. Two to three quarts of additional water should be taken during the day. If hunger develops and you become uncomfortable, a grapefruit may be eaten. A light vegetarian meal is suggested for the evening if hypoglycemic symptoms occur. The following is the two-part recommended protocol: Part A: Begin in the morning and continue through the day with the spicy lemonade fluid consisting of: (1) two tablespoons of fresh lemon juice; (2) two tablespoons of maple syrup (grade B); (3) one-half teaspoon of cayenne powder (except in cases of gastritis and stomach ulcers); (4) add 24 ounces of water, or more to the taste; and (5) drink in small portions throughout the day, at your comfort level. May begin with a second 24-ounces of the above. Part B: Begin the morning or mid-morning saline laxative with one teaspoon of Epsom salt with three ounces of water. Slowly build to one tablespoon, more if needed, for complete bowel evacuation.

Repeat after one hour (one tablespoon Epsom salt with three ounces of water), if no bowel movement occurs. Repeat after one hour, if necessary. Hypoglycemic symptoms develop uncommonly among our patients. Should symptoms occur, we recommend drinking four ounces of a protein shake every four hours. If symptoms persist, the LEMP fast should be terminated.

Liver-Friendly Nutrients and Herbs
Lecithin is the guardian angel of the liver. I prescribe it five days a week for all my patients. Flaxseed and organic vegetable juice are my next priorities. All three are included in Dr. Ali's breakfast. I prescribe liberal daily doses of oxystatic nutrients, including glutathione (100-300 mg); co-enzyme Q10 (100 to 200 mg); methylsulfonylmethane (MSM, 750 to 1,500 mg); taurine (750 to 1,500 mg); and antioxidant vitamins. Among the minerals in elemental doses are magnesium (500 to 750 mg); potassium (100 to 150 mg); calcium (500 to 750 mg); zinc (25 to 50 mg); and selenium, chromium, and molybdenum (400 to 600 mcg each). For oxystatic phytofactor support of the liver, I use the following two combinations in weekly rotation: (1) milk thistle, 100 mg; goldenseal, 50 mg; dandelion root, 50 mg; black radish, 50 mg; catnip, 50 mg; methionine, 400 mg; choline bitrate, 200 mg; and inositol, 20 mg; and (2) red clover, 100 mg; tumeric, 100 mg; ginger, 100 mg; fennel seeds, 100 mg; Jerusalem artichoke, 100 mg; and tumeric, 100 mg. Onions, boswellia, green tea, and rosemary are other suitable choices. In my view, it is crucial to use herbs and phytofactors in rotation.

Direct Oxystatic Therapies
For reversing liver disease, my colleagues at the Institute of Integrative Medicine, New York, and I rely heavily on direct oxystatic therapies, such as hydrogen peroxide foot soaks, intravenous peroxide and ozone therapies, and EDTA chelation infusions. I devote extended chapters to these therapies in Darwin, Dysoxygenosis, and Oxystatic Therapies (2005)16 and Darwin, Dysoxygenosis, and Disease, 3rd. Edition (2007),17 the third and eleventh volumes of The Principles and Practice of Integrative Medicine.

Case Studies

To illustrate the clinical benefits of oxygen-based integrative management programs for liver detoxification and restoration of liver health, in this section, I present the following three case studies.

Case # 1: Reduction of Hepatitis C Viral Load
A 69-year-old man presented with a history of hepatitis C infection, severe fatigue of three-years duration, hypertension, enlarged prostate, nasal allergy, constipation, impotence, and low blood immune cell count. His legs showed dependent edema. With our integrative protocols and 14 intravenous hydrogen peroxide infusions on a weekly or alternate-week basis, he showed slow and steady improvement in symptoms of allergy, fatigue, and constipation over a period of twelve months. Table 2 shows how his hepatitis C viral count dropped from over 5 million per ml to 489,230 per ml in about seven months of oxy and antioxidant therapies. During that time, his immune cell count rose from 2,900 to 3,600. Two months later, he developed upper abdominal pain and was given antibiotic therapy for H. pylori for three weeks by his gastroenterologist. When I saw him two months later, his viral count had climbed back to 1,879,000/ml, and his immune cell count had fallen to 3,000.

Table 2. Hepatitis C Viral Counts During Integrative Oxy Therapies

Date Viral Count* WBC** Comments
11/30/1998 over 5 million/ml 2,900 Treatment begun

898,000/ml 3,100 14 IV hydrogen peroxide on alternate weeks
7/22/1999 489,230/ml 3,600 Antibiotics received in September for an abdominal infection
11/15/1999 1,879,000/ml 3,000 Relapse of fatigue

*Viral counts performed with RNA PCR technology and expressed as copies per milliliter.
** White blood cells. Note how changes in the total viral count were associated with the changes in the immune (white blood corpuscles) cell count.

Case # 2: Increase in Hepatitis C Viral Load With Air Travel Dysoxygenosis
In Oxygen and Aging (2000),9 I introduced the term air travel dysoxygenosis for a pattern of exacerbation of chronic disorders in the days and weeks after extended air travel. In Table 3, I reproduce data from that volume showing the values for hepatitis C viral during a four-year study period. The patient responded well to our integrative therapies with focus on liver detox and oxystatic therapies. A trip to Europe caused fatigue and abdominal symptoms along with a dangerous rise in his viral load. Aggressive oxy therapies dramatically lowered the viral count and restored his health within months.

Table 3. Changes in Hepatitis C Load With Air Travel Dysox


10. 06. 96

03. 22. 97

06. 17. 97

10. 07. 97

02. 06. 98

06. 19. 98

08. 06. 98

08. 27. 98

10. 28. 98

03. 08. 00

Hepatitis C Counts











*He traveled to Europe and developed abdominal discomfort and fatigue within a few days of the trip. He felt better while traveling in Europe by car. After the return flight, he became ill.

Case # 3: Recovery from Chronic Hepatitis Associated with Crohn's Colitis
In 1993, a 51-year-old attorney presented with chronic fatigue, myalgia, inhalant allergy, and intractable diarrhea. He had undergone colectomy for Crohn's colitis. Liver function tests revealed evidence of severe hepatic inflammation caused by ascending cholangitis secondary to chronic inflammation of rectum. He responded well to our liver detox and oxystatic therapies. His liver function tests showed of marked reduction in liver inflammation. Three years later, he was unable to follow the program and suffered a severe attack of proctitis, which caused a relapse of hepatitis. Table 4 shows the data concerning his liver function tests performed over a period of fourteen years.

Table 4. Normalization of Abnormal Liver Enzyme Levels*

Alk Phos
Nov. 1993
June 1994
Feb. 1996
March 1996
Sep. 2006
May 2007

* Laboratory reference ranges: GGTP, 0-65IU/L; ALT, 0-55 IU/L; AST, 0-40 IU/L; Alk. Phosphatase, 20-160 IU/L; Globulin, 1.5 to 4.5 g/dL.

Oxygen, Liver Injury, and Regeneration
The German chemist De Groot and colleagues investigated lipid peroxidation and cell viability in isolated liver cells.18 They designed an oxystat system capable of maintaining steady-state oxygen partial pressures (PO2) in incubating and respiring cells at levels between 0.1 and 300 mm Hg for days. Not unexpectedly, at PO2 between 35 and 70 mm Hg, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced lipid peroxidation and death in the liver cells. Interestingly, under anaerobic conditions and at PO2 greater than 70 mm Hg, CCl4 did not destroy any liver cells. Evidently, both the lack of oxygen and very high levels of oxygen stopped liver metabolism and saved the cells from CCl4 toxicity.

In the second study, the Italian researcher Bruno Nardo and colleagues examined the protective effects of additional oxygen supply on liver regeneration following CCl4 toxicity and partial hepatectomy in rats.19 They performed portal vein arterialization (PVA) by interposing a stent between the left renal artery and splenic vein after left nephrectomy and splenectomy. They observed a rapid regeneration leading to the resolution of toxic-induced massive liver necrosis and a faster restoration of liver mass after partial hepatectomy.

In the third study, the Japanese investigator Kabuto and colleagues investigated the changes in antioxidant systems of the liver cells caused by bisphenol A toxicity.20 They observed the following: (1) increased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG); (2) increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and decreased catalase activities; and (3) increased activity of glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) activity, which is expected to readily convert hydrogen peroxide to hydroxy radical.

In the fourth study, the Japanese investigator Tomarui and colleagues examined the effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on the liver cells.21 Pulmonary exposure to DEP caused fatty change of the liver in obese diabetic mice via oxidative stress. I cite this study to underscore the importance of including pollutants in the ambient air among the causes of liver injury. Earlier, I indicated that I examined over 2,000 biopsies in my hospital pathology work. I do not recall a single time when any gastroenterologist or hepatologist ever brought up this subject while reviewing a liver biopsy with me.

Concluding Comments
Evolution of oxygen-driven, high-efficiency cellular energetics was one of nature's master strokes. Oxygen, the ultimate, elemental Dr. Jekyll/Mr. Hyde, generates both clean energy and toxic waste. The design of the inflammatory response under the organizing influence of oxygen was nature's other trump card. The inflammatory response, a requisite for cellular healing, is a kaleidoscopic mosaic. In a previous article, I drew a sharp distinction between physiological and pathological inflammatory response.4 Next to the bowel, the liver protects the integrity of that mosaic more than any other organ. In this article, I develop a new line of biochemical evidence to support that view by presenting a large body of personal data that correlate increased urinary excretion of hippuric acid with increased urinary excretion of bowel-derived mycotoxins. Castor-Cise is my integrated program of a castor oil liver detox, a castor oil bowel detox, a sesame oil oral detox, and limbic, non-competitive, meditative exercise. I hope readers will consider my regimen and put it to a clinical test of validation. Finally, I have presented case histories to illustrate the potential benefits of integrated liver detox program.

1. Ali M. Spontaneity of Oxidation in Nature and Aging (monograph). Teaneck, New Jersey: 1983.
2. Ali M. The Principles and Practice of Integrative Medicine Volume I: Nature's Preoccupation With Complementarity and Contrariety. New York: Canary 21 Press. 1998. 2nd edition 2005.
3. Ali M. September Eleven, 2005. New York: Aging Healthfully Book; 2003.
4. Ali M. Oxygen governs the inflammatory response and adjudicates the man-microbe conflicts. Townsend Letter. 2005;262:98-103.
5. Ali M. The dysox model of aging. Townsend Letter. 2005;269:130-134.
6. Ali M. Darwin, oxidosis, dysoxygenosis, and integration. J Integrative Medicine. 1999;3:11-16.
7. Ali M. The Principles and Practice of Integrative Medicine Volume V: Integrative Immunology. 2nd edition. New York: Canary 21 Press; 1999.
8. Ali M. Recent advances in integrative allergy care. Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery. 2000;8:260-266.
9. Ali M. Oxygen and Aging. 2000. New York: Canary 21 Press; 2000. New York: Aging Healthfully Books; 2000.
10. Ali M. The Principles and Practice of Integrative Medicine Volume V: Integrative Nutritional Medicine. 2nd Edition. New York: Canary 21 Press; 2001.
11. Ali M. The dysox model of diabetes and de-diabetization potential. Townsend Letter. 2007; 286:137-145.
12. Ali M. The Cortical Monkey and Healing. Bloomfield, New Jersey: Life Span Books; 1991.
13. Ali M. The Ghoraa and Limbic Exercise. Denville, New Jersey: Life Span Books; 1993.
14. Ali M. Limbic breathing. Townsend Letter. 2007; 288:160-166.
15. Ali M. The Crab, Oxygen and Cancer. Volume I: The Dysox Model of Cancer.New York: Canary 21 Press; 2007.
16. Ali M. The Principles and Practice of Integrative Medicine Volume III: Darwin, Dysoxygenosis, and Oxystatic Therapies. 2nd Edition. New York: Canary 21 Press; 2005.
17. Ali M. The Principles and Practice of Integrative Medicine Volume XI: Darwin, Dysoxygenosis, and Disease. 3rd edition. New York: Canary 21 Press; 2007.
18. De Groot H, Littauer A, Hugo-Wissemann D, et al. Lipid peroxidation and cell viability in isolated hepatocytes in a redesigned oxystat system: evaluation of the hypothesis that lipid peroxidation, preferentially induced at low oxygen partial pressures, is decisive for CCl4 liver cell injury. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1988;264:591-9.
19. Nardo B, Caraceni P, Puviani L, et al. Successful treatment of CCl4-induced acute liver failure with portal vein arterialization in the rat. Journal of Surgical Research. 2006;135:394-401.
20. Kabuto H, Hasuike S, Minagawa N, et al. Effects of bisphenol A on the metabolisms of active oxygen species in mouse tissues. Environ Res. 2003;93:31-5.
21. Tomarui M, Takano H, Ken-Ichiro Inoue, K-I, et al. Pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles enhances fatty change of the liver in obese diabetic mice Int. J. Molecular Medicine. 2007;19:17-22.



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