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From the Townsend Letter
October 2008

Comprehensive Lifestyle Intervention Improves Hair and Skin Status and Mental and Physical Functioning
by Gary Null, PhD, and Martin Feldman, MD

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Liu RH. Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combinations of phytochemicals. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003; 78(Suppl):517S-520S.

Craig WJ. Phytochemicals: guardians of our health. J Am Diet Assoc. 1997; 97(10Suppl 2):S199-204.

Heber D. Vegetables, fruits and phytoestrogens in the prevention of diseases. J Postgrad Med. 2004; 50(2):145-149.

Stevenson DE, Hurst RD. Polyphenolic phytochemicals – just antioxidants or much more? Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007 Aug 30; [Epub ahead of print].

Liu RH. Potential synergy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: mechanism of action. J Nutr. 2004; 134(12 Suppl):3479-3485S.

Peterson S, Lampe JW, Bammler TK, et al. Apiaceous vegetable constituents inhibit human cytochrome P-450 1A2 (hCYP1A2) activity and hCYP1A2-mediated mutagenicity of aflatoxin B(1). Food Chem Toxicol. 2006; 44(9):1474-1484. Epub 2006 Apr 27.

Appel LJ, Sacks FM, Carey VJ, Obarzanek E, Swain JF, et al. Effects of protein, monounsaturated fat, and carbohydrate intake on blood pressure and serum lipids. JAMA. 2005;294(19):2455-2464.

Manson JE, Hu FB, Rich-Edwards JW, Colditz GA, et al. A prospective study of walking as compared with vigorous exercise in the prevention of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med. 1999;341(9):650-658.

Walton KG, Schneider RH, Nidich S. Review of controlled research on the transcendental meditation program and cardiovascular disease. Risk factors, morbidity, and mortality. Cardiol Rev. 2004;12(5):262-266.

Svetkey LP, Erlinger TP, Vollmer WM, et al. Effect of lifestyle modifications on blood pressure by race, sex, hypertension status, and age. J Hum Hypertens. 2005;19(1)21-31.

Orchard TJ, et al. The effect of metformin and intensive lifestyle intervention on the metabolic syndrome: the diabetes Prevention Program randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142(8):611-619.

Koertge J, Weidner G, Elliott-Eller M, et al. Improvement in medical risk factors and quality of life in women and men with coronary artery disease in the Multicenter Lifestyle Demonstration Project. Am J Cardiol. 2003;91(11):1316-1322.

Burke V, Beilin LJ, Cutt HE, et al. Effects of a lifestyle programme on ambulatory blood pressure and drug dosage in treated hypertensive patients: a randomized controlled trial. J Hypertens. 2005;23(6):1241-1249.

Ornish D, Brown SE, Scherwitz LW, Billings JH, Armstrong WT, et al. Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? The Lifestyle Heart Trial. Lancet. 1990;336(8708):129-133.

Esposito K, et al. Effect of weight loss and lifestyle changes on vascular inflammatory markers in obese women. A randomized trial. JAMA. 2003; 289(14):1799-1804.

Toobert DJ, Glasgow RE, Strycker LA, et al. Biologic and quality-of-life outcomes from the Mediterranean Lifestyle program. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(8):2288-2293.
Sabate J. The contribution of vegetarian diets to human health. Forum Nutr. 2003;56:218-20.

American Dietetic Association; Dietitians of Canada. Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003;103(6):748-65.

Leitzmann C.Vegetarian diets: what are the advantages? Forum Nutr. 2005;(57):147-56.

Kris-Etherton PM, William HS, Lawrence JA. Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. An AHA scientific statement. Circulation. 2002;106(21):2747-2757.

Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, et al. Consumption of fish and n-3 fatty acids and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol. 2003;60(7):940-946.

Kalmijn S, van Boxtel MP, Ocke M, et al. Dietary intake of fatty acids and fish in relation to cognitive performance at middle age. Neurology. 2004;62(2):275-280.

US Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Food and Drug Administration. What you need to know about mercury in fish and shellfish. 2004 EPA and FDA advice for: women who might become pregnant, women who are pregnant, nursing mothers, young children. March 2004. EPA-823-R-04-005.

Oxidative Damage Information Center. The Basics: Oxidative Damage, and Oxidative Damage Research Archives. Available at:, a website of the American Federation for Aging Research. Accessed December 12, 2007.

Wu XL, Beecher GR, Holden JM, et al. Lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant capacitites of common foods in the United States. J Agric Food Chem. 2004; 52(12):4026-37.

Warner J. Antioxidant riches found in unexpected foods. WebMD. June 17, 2004. Available at:

Sun J, Chu YF, Wu X, Liu RH. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common fruits. J Agric Food Chem. 2002; 59(25):7449-54.

Chu YF, Sun J, Wu X, Liu RH. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common vegetables. J Agric Food Chem. 2002; 50(23):6910-6.

Tyson J, Mathers JC. Dietary and genetic modulation of DNA repair in healthy human adults. Proc Nutr Soc. 2007; 66(1):42-51.

Chakraborty S, Roy M, Bhattacharya RK. Prevention and repair of DNA damage by selected phytochemicals as measured by single cell gel electrophoresis. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2004;23(3):215-226.

Collins AR, Harrington V, Drew J, Melvin R. Nutritional modulation of DNA repair in a human intervention study. i. 2003;24(3):511-515.

Astley SB, Elliott RM, Archer DB, et al. Evidence that dietary supplementation with carotenoids and carotenoid-rich foods modulates the DNA damage: Repair balance in human lymphocytes. Br J Nutr. 2004; 91(1):63-72.

Pool-Zobel BL, Bub A, Liegibel UM, et al. Mechanisms by which vegetable consumption reduces genetic damage in humans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1998; 7(10):891-899.

Moller P, Loft S. Interventions with antioxidants and nutrients in relation to oxidative DNA damage and repair. Mutat Res. 2004; 551(1-2):79-89.

Weisel T, Baum M, Eisenbrand G, Deitrich H, Will F, et al. An anthocyanin/polyphenolic-rich fruit juice reduces oxidative DNA damage and increases glutathione level in healthy probands. Biotechnol. J 2006; 1(4):388-97.

Djuric Z, Depper JB, Uhley V, et al. Oxidative DNA damage levels in blood from women at high risk for breast cancer are associated with dietary intakes of meats, vegetables, and fruits. J Am Diet Assoc. 1998; 98(5):524-8.

Rabovsky A, Cuomo J, Eich N. Measurement of plasma antioxidant reserve after supplementation with various antioxidants in healthy subjects. Clin Chim Acta. 2006; 371(1-2):55-60. Epub 2006 Mar 6.

Preziosi P, Galan P, Herbeth B, et al. Effects of supplementation with a combination of antioxidant vitamins and trace elements, at nutritional doses, on biochemical indicators and markers of the antioxidant system in adult subjects. J Am Coll Nutr. 1988; 17(3):244-249.

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Fang YZ, Yang S, Wu G. Free radicals, antioxidants, and nutrition. Nutrition. 2002; 18(10):872-9.

Manson JE, Hu FB, Rich-Edwards JW, Colditz GA, et al. A prospective study of walking as compared with vigorous exercise in the prevention of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med. 1999;341(9):650-658.

Malkin M. Aerobic Walking: The Weight-Loss Exercise: A Complete Program to Reduce Weight, Stress, and Hypertension. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc.; 1995.

Kuramoto AM. Therapeutic benefits of Tai Chi exercise: research review. WMJ. 2006;105(7):42-6. Review.

Jouper J, Hassmen P, Johansson M. Qigong exercise with concentration predicts increased health. Am J Chin Med. 2006;34(6):949-57.

Walton KG, Schneider RH, Nidich S. Review of controlled research on the transcendental meditation program and cardiovascular disease. Risk factors, morbidity, and mortality. Cardiol Rev. 2004;12(5):262-266.

Matthews WJ, Conti JM, Sireci SG. The effects of intercessory prayer, positive visualization, and expectancy on the well-being of kidney dialysis patients. Altern Ther Health Med. 2001;7(5):42-52.

Bijlani RL, Vempati RP, Yadav RK, Ray RB, Gupta V, et al. A brief but comprehensive lifestyle education program based on yoga reduces risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. J Altern Complement Med. 2005;11(2):267-274.

Creswell JD, Lam S, Stanton AL, Taylor SE, Bower JE, Sherman DK. Does self-affirmation, cognitive processing, or discovery of meaning explain cancer-related health benefits of expressive writing? Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2007;33(2):238-50.

Kerr T, Walsh J, Marshall A. Emotional change processes in music-assisted reframing. J Music Ther. 2001 Fall;38(3):193-211.

Null G. Clearer, Cleaner, Safer, Greener. A Blueprint for Detoxifying Your Environment. New York: Villard Books; 1990.

Dadd DL. Home Safe Home: Creating a Healthy Home Environment by Reducing Exposure to Toxic Household Products. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin; 1997, 2004.

The New Farm Organic Price Index. Wholesale prices for certain vegetables and fruits in four U.S. markets for the week of January 18, 2006. Available at:
International Health, Racquet and Sportsclub Association. Figure reported by association members for 2004.

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