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From the Townsend Letter
October 2006


Recent Progress in Clinical Applications
and Research in Fibromyalgia

by Robert W. Bradford, Professor of Medicine, D. Sc. NMD, and Henry W. Allen, Director of Clinical Biochemistry, BRI

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Continued. . . 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12

Miscellaneous Responses from Substance P

Bacteria Binding to Lymphocytes Inhibited
The effects of substance P on Salmonella sp. binding to human peripheral blood lymphocytes were evaluated. Two parameters were considered, the number of binding lymphocytes and the number of bacteria bound to lymphocytes. Substance P inhibits both parameters in a significant manner. The distribution of Salmonella binding to CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes was also studied. Substance P inhibited binding of bacteria to both T-cell subpopulations, particularly in the T-suppressor subset.44 See Figure 6. (13KB .pdf)

This effect from substance P implies that those experiencing great amounts of pain (fibromyalgia patients included) have a lowered ability to fight infectious microorganisms because of this agent and therefore a greater chance for chronic infection from a variety of infectious agents, including bacteria, fungi, mycoplasma, and virus. The successful administration to fibromyalgia patients of both Sulfoxime™ and Dioxychlor®, two antimicrobial agents, is in agreement with these findings. The overgrowth of microorganisms can be seen with high-resolution microscopy.

Cerebrospinal levels of substance P were three times as high in fibromyalgia patients as in normal controls (p < 0.001).130

Increased CNS Invasion by HIV-1 from Substance P
An envelope protein (gp120) of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1, AIDS virus) damages the blood-brain barrier in the presence of substance P and allows an early invasion of the Central Nervous System (CNS) by the virus. Substance P is secreted by brain endothelium in response to stimulation by gp120 and binds to brain endothelial cells through a receptor-mediated mechanism.45


Patients with CFS/FMS were examined for multiple mycoplasmal infections in their blood using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 91 patients diagnosed with CFS/FMS with a positive test for any mycoplasmal infection were investigated for the presence of Mycoplasma fermentans, M. pneumoniae, M. hominis, and M. penetrans in the blood. Among these patients, infections were detected with M. pneumoniae (54/91), M. fermentans (44/91), M. hominis (28/91), and M. penetrans (18/91). Multiple mycoplasmal infections were found in 48 of 91 patients, with double infections being detected in 30.8% and triple infections in 22%, but only when one of the species was M. pneumoniae or M. fermentans. Patients infected with more than one mycoplasmal species generally had a longer history of illness, suggesting that they may have contracted additional mycoplasmal infections with time.46 (See Chart 2.) These mycoplasma are seen with high resolution microscopy. (See Chart 2, Photo 1.)

Chart 2: Infection by Mycoplasma in Fibromyalgia Patients

Infectious Organism Number Infected of 91 Patients
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
M. fermentans
M. hominis
M. penetrans
Double infections found in 30.8%
Triple infections found in 22%

Mycoplasma Invagination

Photo 1: Mycoplasma Invagination on Red Blood Cells

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is also associated with a variety of neurological diseases, in some instances directly invading the CNS, including encephalitis,47 meningoencephalitis and cerebellitis48 and encephalopathy.49 M. pneumoniae is also known to directly invade the brain parenchyma.50 Mycoplasma fermentans has been found in the brain of some AIDS patients.51 Mycoplasma attach to their host cells by means of surface membrane proteins which have specificity for the target tissues.56,57 In addition, with high-resolution microscopy, mycoplasma are readily seen infecting red blood cells.

Of ninety patients diagnosed with hepatitis C virus, 14 (16%) were also diagnosed with fibromyalgia.52 In a similar study of 112 patients diagnosed with hepatitis C virus, 17 (15.2%) were also diagnosed with fibromyalgia.53 HLB® coagulation blood morphology microscopy associated with viral infection is evident in FMS. Proprietary Stabilized Active Oxygen Carrier attacks and inactivates viruses by a specific mechanism involving the oxidation of the guanine residue of DNA or RNA. This guanine residue (G) is the same for both RNA. 58 .See Chart 3 and Photo 5 (viral bridges).

Black Viral Bridges
Photo 5: Black Viral Bridges
HLB Coagulation Morphology

Antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae have been detected in the blood of fibromyalgia patients, indicating infection with this organism.54 In addition, Chlamydia infection of RBC are seen in FMS. (See Chart 3, Photo 4.)

Chart 3: Virus and Bacteria in Fibromyalgia Patients
Hepatitis C
Fibromyalgia detected in 16% of Hepatitis C patients

Chlamydia Microscopy - 80% of fibromyalgia patients have Chlamydia
Antibodies to C. pneumoniae detected in fibromyalgia patients

Bacterial Invagination

Photo 4: Bacterial Invagination on Red Blood Cells

Continued. . . 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12

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