In Part 1 of this
we reviewed studies showing that the fluoridation of drinking water has not
lived up to its promise
in terms of
reducing dental decay. We discussed the continuing support for water fluoridation
from the US government and the American Dental Association, but also presented
the views of some former supporters of fluoridation who have begun to question
the need for the process altogether. Finally, we examined the thin margin
of safety that exists for fluoride and the multiple sources of fluoride exposure
we face today.
In this second installment, we look at what occurs when a person’s
fluoride intake exceeds the optimal level. The inescapable fact is that fluoride
been associated with severe health problems, ranging from dental fluorosis
and skeletal fluorosis to bone fractures and even cancer.
According to a 1989 National Institute for Dental Research study, 1% to 2%
of children living in areas fluoridated at 1 ppm develop dental fluorosis,
or permanently stained, brown mottled teeth. Up to 23% of children living
in areas naturally fluoridated at 4 ppm develop severe dental fluorosis.
In a 2000 study, researchers report that the prevalence of dental fluorosis
in the United States has increased over the last 30 years in both fluoridated
and nonfluoridated communities. They conclude that without intervention measures,
such as using low-fluoride water to dilute infant formulas, supervising the
toothbrushing of young children and changing fluoride supplement recommendations,
the fluoride intakes of infants and children are likely to continue to increase
and be associated with a further increase in the prevalence of enamel fluorosis.1
The most critical period for fluoride exposure is the first year of life. A
1998 study reports that children exposed during this year, and to a lesser
extent during the second year, are far more likely to develop fluorosis than
those whose exposure begins later. The early mineralizing teeth – the
central incisors and first molars – are the most likely to be affected.2
A study of rats suggests that dietary calcium helps protect teeth from fluoride
toxicity to a certain extent. The level of dental fluorosis decreased with
the increasing ingestion of calcium during the development of teeth.3
A recent review of the literature identified four major risk factors for dental
fluorosis. “There is substantial evidence that fluoridated water, fluoride
supplements, infant formulas, and fluoride toothpastes are risk factors for
fluorosis,” alone and together, reports Dr. Ana K. Mascarenhas of Ohio
State University. And, too often, dentists and physicians misprescribe fluoride,
she concludes.4 Two other studies indicate that African-American children may
be at particular risk for dental fluorosis. One found higher levels of fluorosis
in black children than in others studied5; the other reported that an increase
in dental fluorosis risk in several communities was greater among African-American
In “50 Reasons to Oppose Fluoridation,” Paul Connett, PhD, professor
of chemistry at St. Lawrence University (New York) who helped found the Fluoride
Action Network (www.fluoridealert.org), observes that “the level of fluoride
put into water (1 ppm) is 100 times higher than normally found in mothers’ milk
(0.01 ppm).7 There are no benefits, only risks, for infants ingesting this
heightened level of fluoride at such an early age (this is an age where susceptibility
to environmental toxins is particularly high).”8
Fluorosis gets worse as a child approaches puberty, according to a study conducted
in Norway. This study showed a significant increase in the severity of fluorosis
with increasing age in a high fluoride community, whereas no change in severity
with age was observed in a low fluoride community. Fluorosis resulting from
high fluoride content of drinking water increases between the ages of 10 and
Although the ADA and the government consider dental fluorosis only a cosmetic
problem, the American Journal of Public Health says that “...brittleness
of moderately and severely mottled teeth may be associated with elevated caries
levels.”10 In these cases the fluoride is causing the exact problem it’s
supposed to prevent. According to Dr. Yiamouyiannis, “In highly naturally-fluoridated
areas, the teeth actually crumble as a result. These are the first visible
symptoms of fluoride poisoning.”11
In addition, the negative consequences of dental fluorosis go beyond the physical.
The psychological effects of having moderately to severely mottled teeth also
cannot be ignored. These effects were recognized in a 1984 National Institute
of Mental Health panel that looked into this problem.12
When fluoride is ingested, approximately 93% of it is absorbed into the bloodstream.
A good part of this intake is excreted, but the rest is deposited in the
bones and teeth13 and is capable of causing a crippling skeletal fluorosis.
Large numbers of people in Japan, China, India, the Middle East and Africa
have been diagnosed with skeletal fluorosis from drinking naturally fluoridated
water. In India alone, nearly a million people suffer from the affliction.14
While only a dozen cases of skeletal fluorosis have been reported in the United
States, Chemical & Engineering News has stated that “critics of the
EPA standard speculate that there probably have been many more cases of fluorosis – even
crippling fluorosis – than the few reported in the literature because
most doctors in the US have not studied the disease and do not know how to
diagnose it.”15 Because some symptoms of skeletal fluorosis mimic those
of arthritis, the first two clinical phases of fluorosis can easily be misdiagnosed.16
According to Dr. Connett, the causes of most forms of osteoarthritis are unknown.
It is not implausible that the high prevalence of arthritis in America may
be related to our high levels of fluoride intake.17 (Arthritis is one of the
most prevalent diseases in the US; nearly 43 million Americans have arthritis
and related conditions.18) A 2001 study in Turkey found that the severity of
osteoarthritis of the knee was greater in patients with endemic fluorosis than
in control subjects.19
Radiologic changes in bone occur when fluoride exposure is 5 mg per day, according
to the late Dr. Waldbott, author of Fluoridation: The Great Dilemma. While
5 mg per day level is the amount of fluoride ingested by most people living
in fluoridated areas,20 the number increases for diabetics and laborers, who
can ingest up to 20 mg of fluoride daily. In addition, a survey conducted by
the Department of Agriculture shows that 3% of the US population drinks 4 liters
or more of water every day. If these individuals live in areas where the water
contains a fluoride level of 4 ppm, allowed by the EPA, they are ingesting
16 mg per day from the consumption of water alone, and thus are at greater
risk of developing skeletal fluorosis.21
It bears mentioning that skeletal fluorosis may be associated with gastrointestinal
problems. According to a study in India, all 10 patients with documented osteofluorosis
experienced gastrointestinal symptoms, the most common being abdominal pain.22
At one time, fluoride therapy was recommended to help build denser bones and
prevent the fractures associated with osteoporosis. But several articles
in peer-reviewed journals suggest that fluoride actually does more harm than
good because it is associated with bone breakage.
Three studies reported in the Journal of the American Medical Association showed
links between hip fractures and fluoride.223-25 A 1992 study, for example, found “a
small but significant increase in the risk of hip fractures in both men and
women exposed to artificial fluoridation at 1 ppm.”26 In addition, the
New England Journal of Medicine has reported that people given fluoride to
cure their osteoporosis actually end up with an increased nonvertebral fracture
rate.27 Austrian researchers have also found that fluoride tablets make bones
more susceptible to fractures.28
Scientists at Yale University discovered that doses as low as 1 ppm of fluoride
decrease bone strength and elasticity, making fracture more likely.29 Two studies
published in the early 1990s found that the rate of hip fracture generally
increased with exposure to fluoridated water,30 and the results of more recent
studies have suggested that fluoride in water will increase the risk of hip
fractures for certain age groups of women.31,32
Dr. Connett reports that of 18 studies conducted since 1990 on the possible
link between fluoride and a greater rate of hip fractures in the elderly, 10
have found such an association.33 He states, “One study found a dose-related
increase in hip fracture as the concentration of fluoride rose from 1 ppm to
8 ppm.34 Hip fracture is a very serious issue for the elderly, as a quarter
of those who have a hip fracture die within a year of the operation, while
50% never regain an independent existence.”35 In 1989 the US National
Research Council reported that the US hip fracture rate was the highest in
One of the studies that did not find an association between exposure to fluoridated
water and an increase in the risk of fracture was published in the British
Medical Journal in 2000. The researchers reported no difference in the risk
of humerus fracture and a non-significant trend toward an increased risk of
wrist fracture.37 However, in a response to this study, Dr. Connett says that
the “most disturbing aspect of the report is how much attention is given
to the decrease of hip fracture incidence [deemed statistically significant]
and how little attention is given to the increase in the incidence of wrist
fracture [deemed statistically insignificant] in the group exposed for 20 years
to water fluoridation.” The “significance” and “non-significance” of
the change in fracture risks emerged only after adjustment for 12 variables,
Dr. Connett explains. “It raises the question of how accurate these adjustments
were, if such fine distinctions are going to be made.”38
An editorial in Fluoride in 2000 describes the bone effects of fluoride in
detail.39 Fluoride may increase bone quantity (osteofluorosis, osteosclerosis)
but also decrease bone quality and bone strength. It is well known that pharmacological
doses of fluoride increase the risk of torsion-type fractures (such as hip
fractures) despite the appearance of greater bone density. Conventional medicine
interprets the observed fluoride-induced increase of serum alkaline phosphatase
concentration as a sign of osteoblast activity. Actually, it is a reflection
of increased mortality of osteocytes within bone. Osteocytes are rich in alkaline
phosphatase, which is released when the cells are killed by fluoride. It is
therefore unlikely that a window of fluoride-induced bone benefit exists.40
Fluoride’s deleterious effect on bone is well documented. Early experiments
using large doses of fluoride as a treatment for osteoporosis had disastrous
results. Dr. C. Rich warned that rather than strengthening bones, fluoride
could cause osteoarthritis, as well as gastric pain, calcification of the arteries
and visual disturbances.41 In 1980 a group of researchers found that fluoride
accelerated the development of osteoporosis.42
In an experiment on cow bone, fluoride treatment reduced the mechanical strength
of bone tissue by converting small amounts of bone mineral to mostly calcium
fluoride. This action reduces the structurally effective bone mineral content
and possibly affects the interface bonding between the bone mineral and the
organic matrix of the bone tissue.43 A Polish study published in 1999 found
that treatment with fluoridated water decreases the bending strength of the
femoral neck and shaft in laboratory rats.
When combined with a calcium deficiency, the effect of fluoride may be even
worse. In a 2000 study of children in India, the toxic effects of fluoride
were more complex and the incidence of metabolic bone disease and bony leg
deformities was greater in calcium-deficient children than in those with adequate
A 1997 New Zealand review of scientific literature found a consistent pattern
of evidence suggesting that fluoride damages bones; this evidence includes
hip fractures, skeletal fluorosis, the effect of fluoride on bone structure,
fluoride levels in bones and osteosarcomas. Public health authorities in Australia
and New Zealand have appeared reluctant to consider openly and frankly the
implications of this and earlier scientific evidence unfavorable to the continuing
fluoridation of drinking water supplies.45
Effects on the Thyroid System
The supposedly safe fluoride levels in our water may pose a particular danger
for any of the millions of people who suffer from thyroid disorders, reports
Dr. Connett.46 He explains:
“Earlier in the 20th century, fluoride was prescribed by a number of European
doctors to reduce the activity of the thyroid gland for those suffering from
hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) (Merck Index, 1960, p. 952; Waldbott, et
al., 1978, p. 163). With water fluoridation, we are forcing people to drink a
thyroid-depressing medication which could serve to promote higher levels of hypothyroidism
(underactive thyroid) in the population, and all the subsequent problems related
to this disorder….
“It bears noting that according to the Department of Health and Human Services
(1991) fluoride exposure in fluoridated communities is estimated to range from
1.58 to 6.6 mg/day, which is a range that actually overlaps the dose (2.3 - 4.5
mg/day) shown to decrease the functioning of the human thyroid (Goletti & Joyet,
1958).47 This is a remarkable fact, and certainly deserves greater attention
considering the rampant and increasing problem of hypothyroidism in the United
States. (In 1999, the second most prescribed drug of the year was Synthroid,
which is a hormone replacement drug used to treat an underactive thyroid.)” More
than 20 million people in the US receive treatment for thyroid problems, and
many others are thought to go undiagnosed.48 Keep in mind that 1 quart of water
fluoridated at 1 ppm contains 1 milligram of fluoride.
Excess fluorine in drinking water was a risk factor for the more rapid development
of thyroid pathology in a 1985 study. Water with a raised fluorine content
resulted in several thyroid effects in healthy subjects, including an elevated
production of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and a decrease in the concentration
of T3 hormone, compared with healthy people who drank water with a normal concentration
of fluorine.49 An elevated level of TSH reflects an underactivity of the thyroid
system. The pituitary gland releases TSH to direct the thyroid to manufacture
thyroid hormone, but if the thyroid is sluggish in its response, then the pituitary
will release excess TSH (hence, the elevated level) to try to further stimulate
A 1996 study of 165 aluminum production workers with signs of chronic fluoride
intoxication found thyroid abnormalities as well. They included a moderate
reduction of the thyroid’s iodine-absorbing function, low T3 hormone
with a normal level of T4 hormone, and a slight increase of TSH concentration.50
A study of rats also found that fluoride caused a decrease in the levels of
T3 and T4 hormones in plasma, a decrease in the free T4 index, and an increase
in the T3-resin uptake ratio.51 In another study in which pregnant and lactating
mice received fluoridated water, the pups had a 75% decrease in plasma free
T4 at 14 days of age compared with a control group.52 A third study looked
at the long-term effects of iodine and fluoride on the pathogenesis of goiters
and fluorosis in mice. After 100 days of treatment, the fluoride showed some
stimulatory effect on the thyroid in iodine-deficiency conditions and inhibitory
effect in iodine-excess conditions.53
Numerous studies demonstrate links between fluoridation and cancer. Toxicologist
William Marcus has stated that “fluoride is a carcinogen by any standard
we use. I believe EPA should act immediately to protect the public, not just
on the cancer data, but on the evidence of bone fractures, arthritis, mutagenicity
and other effects.”54
A study published in the Journal of Epidemiology in 2001 found that about two-thirds
of 36 cancer sites in the body were positively associated with fluoridated
drinking water. The researchers examined the registered cancer rates for nine
US communities (with 21.8 million inhabitants) and used the percentage of people
supplied with “optimally” fluoridated drinking water to perform
a regression analysis of the incidence rates of cancers in the 36 sites. Of
these, 23 were positively significant, nine were not significant, and four
were negatively significant. Among the cancers positively associated with fluoridated
drinking water were cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, colon and rectum,
hepato-biliary and urinary organs, as well as bone cancers in men, brain tumors
and T-cell system Hodgkin’s disease, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma,
melanoma of the skin and monocytic leukemia.55
Dr. Connett notes that “some of the earliest opponents of fluoride were
biochemists and at least 14 Nobel prize winners are among numerous scientists
who have expressed their reservations about the practice of fluoridation.”56
He cites Dr. James Sumner, winner of the Nobel Prize for his work on enzyme
chemistry, who says, “We ought to go slowly. Everybody knows fluorine
and fluoride are very poisonous substances...We use them in enzyme chemistry
to poison enzymes, those vital agents in the body. That is the reason things
are poisoned; because the enzymes are poisoned and that is why animals and
Dr. Connett also cites two epidemiological studies suggesting a possible association
between osteosarcoma (bone cancer) in young men and fluoridated areas.58 One
is the report of the US National Toxicology Program, which first uncovered
the epidemiological evidence of increased osteosarcoma in boys and young men
living in fluoridated areas.59 The second is a study conducted by the New Jersey
Department of Health, in which Dr. Perry Cohn studied the incidence of the
rare bone cancer in seven New Jersey counties relative to water fluoridation.
In fluoridated areas, the incidence of osteosarcoma was 4.6 times higher than
in unfluoridated areas in boys under the age of 10, 3.5 times higher in the
10 to 19 age group, and more than twice as high in the 20 to 49 age group.60
A 2001 study of 20 osteosarcoma patients in India assessed the levels of fluoride
in bone and explored the possible relationship with p53 mutations. The researchers
propose that the “high fluoride bone content might have been one of the
major factors causing osteosarcoma.”61
Enzyme Toxicity and Genetic Damage
Studies suggest that even a supposedly “safe” concentration of
1 ppm of fluoride added to drinking water can interfere with critical biological
functions. This was demonstrated in 1977 at Austria’s Siebersdorf Research
Center by Dr. W. Klein and colleagues, who found that even the low dose of
1 ppm inhibited DNA repair enzyme activity by 50% and caused genetic and chromosome
A similar study conducted at the University of Missouri confirmed these results.63
In addition, scientists at Poland’s Pomeranian Medical Academy found
that as little as 0.6 ppm of fluoride produced chromosomal damage to human
white blood cells.64 And sperm cells displayed “a highly significant
increase in mutation” after being treated with fluoride at Holland’s
When S.C. Freni participated in a 1991 US Public Health Service review of the
toxicity of fluoride, he searched for studies that correlated fluoride exposure
with reproductive effects in humans. Freni discovered that in almost 50 years
of fluoridation, no one had ever studied fluoride’s effect on the human
Several studies have since found that fluoride may have negative effects on
the male reproductive system. In a 1996 study, researchers found that patients
with skeletal fluorosis had significantly lower levels of circulating serum
testosterones than did normal, healthy males living in areas nonendemic for
fluorosis. (Other males who drank the same water as the fluorosis patients
but had no clinical manifestations of the disease also had lower levels than
the normal controls.) The decreased testosterone concentrations “suggest
that fluoride toxicity may cause adverse effects in the reproductive system
of males living in fluorosis endemic areas,” the researchers concluded.67
And in a 1994 study of mature rats treated with sodium fluoride, Narayana and
Chinoy found that fluoride interferes with androgenesis and damages the testes
by inhibiting the action of testosterone.68
Several studies conducted in China link fluoride exposure to adverse effects
on intelligence. In a 2000 study, researchers found that the IQ of 60 children
aged 10 to 12 in a high-fluoride area was significantly lower than that of
58 children in a low-fluoride village. More children in the high-fluoride
area (21.6%) were in the retardation or borderline IQ categories than their
low-fluoride counterparts (3.4%). The researchers also found an inverse relationship
between IQ and urinary fluoride level. They concluded: “Exposure of
children to high levels of fluoride may therefore carry the risk of impaired
development of intelligence.”69
Another investigation measured the intelligence of children aged 8 to 13 living
in areas with slight, medium and severe prevalence of fluorosis. It demonstrated
a 15 to 19 point decrease in IQ among children in the fluorosis area compared
with the nonfluorosis area.70 In addition, a 1994 study of children’s
intelligence and the metabolism of iodine and fluorine revealed that exposure
to high levels of fluoride increased the prevalence of thyroid enlargement
(29.8%) and dental fluorosis (72.9%), while producing a slightly lower average
IQ compared with control areas. The IQ differential was more pronounced (16.8%)
when lower intelligence children were studied separately.71
Dr. Connett cites a recent review by the Greater Boston Physicians for Social
Responsibility which found that fluoride interferes with brain function in
young animals and children.72
Effect on the Pineal Gland
Another concern is fluoride’s effect on the pineal gland, a small but
powerful structure located between the right and left hemispheres of the brain.
The pineal gland secretes melatonin, a hormone that affects such functions
as sleep cycles, jet lag, hybernation in animals, immunity and the onset of
Jennifer Luke, PhD, found that the pineal gland attracts fluoride and thereby
interferes with the functions of melatonin.73 In autopsy studies, she discovered
extremely high concentrations of fluoride in the gland, averaging 9,000 ppm
and reaching 21,000 ppm in some cases.74 In an accompanying study of fluoride-treated
Mongolian gerbils (the animal considered most favorable for studying effects
on the pineal gland), Luke found lower levels of melatonin and earlier onset
In addition, numerous studies have correlated insufficient melatonin production
with an earlier-than-usual onset of puberty.75,76 A 1955 study in Newburgh
and Kingston, New York, produced some extremely puzzling results that scientists
have yet to explain. One was the finding that girls in fluoridated Newberg
were reaching menstruation five months earlier on average than the girls in
unfluoridated Kingston. This raises the question, does fluoride contribute
to the alarming rates of early puberty that we are seeing?77 Premature menstruation
is associated with a variety of ills, including breast cancer and obesity.
A 2001 study published in the American Journal of Public Health reveals that
early maturation nearly doubled the odds of being obese.78
Elevated Blood Lead Levels
Research conducted in recent years suggests that water fluoridation is associated
with the harmful problem of increased blood levels of lead in children. Lead
poisoning has been associated with higher rates of physical diseases and
behavioral problems, and it has been a particular problem for African-American
children, according to a report by Dr. Roger D. Masters, research professor
of government and Nelson A. Rockefeller Professor Emeritus at Dartmouth College,
and president of the Foundation for Neuroscience & Society.79
Rogers and other researchers compared the blood lead levels of children living
in communities whose water is treated with silicofluorides (SiFs), which serve
more than 140 million Americans, with those in communities using sodium fluoride
or with nonfluoridated water. In three samples that included more than 400,000
children in total, they found, “SiF-treated municipal water is always
significantly associated with increased blood lead levels in children.”80-82
The research also found that this higher uptake of lead from the environment
was especially pronounced among black children, who have higher blood levels
of lead than do whites in similar environments. The research controlled for
other risk factors associated with higher blood lead. But even when children
living in communities with fewer risk factors for blood lead were compared
with those in high-risk communities, the researchers found that “those
exposed to silicofluoride-treated water are always worse off than those without
these chemicals in their water, and these silicofluoride effects are worse
when children are also exposed to many environmental risk factors for blood
lead uptake. Moreover, these effects are strikingly worse for black children
than for whites.”83
The greater uptake of lead is disturbing because high blood lead is associated
with negative health and behavioral traits, including violent crime, cocaine
use and asthma. When the researchers analyzed available data on these traits,
they found that children exposed to SiF-treated water were more likely to have
the behavioral or health problems that are more likely to occur among people
with high levels of lead.84
Rogers explains that lead poisoning disturbs the functioning of dopamine, a
neurotransmitter that runs the brake pedal of the brain, among other actions.
This neurotransmitter fires cells in areas of the brain that are associated
with learning, impulse control, substance abuse and aggressive behavior. As
a result, Rogers says, “lead increases the frequency of hyperactivity
or learning disabilities, substance abuse and violent crime.”85 Because
lead reduces impulse control, for example, children who have absorbed lead
are more likely to grow up to have records of violent crime.86Previous research
shows that other toxic metals, such as manganese in abnormal levels, also can
affect neurotransmitters and produce subtle behavioral effects. This research
suggests that “traditional approaches to crime in the United States need
to be reconsidered from an ecological point of view.”87
As for the silicofluorides added to drinking water, Rogers points out that
they have never been tested for safety. (All tests of water fluoridation were
done with sodium fluoride.) He believes the US should stop using SiFs until
they have been fully tested by independent laboratories and proved to be safe.
As it stands, he says, we are forcibly medicating people with a potentially
dangerous and untested set of chemicals that compromise the lives of children.88
His report concludes: “…It is hard to understand how responsible
public health authorities could object to a moratorium on silicofluoride usage
pending tests that demonstrate conclusively their safety. Our data indicate
that such a step might well make a large contribution to reducing children’s
blood lead levels and associated problems of health and behavior. Even more
important, this action could have especially large benefits for thousands of
blacks living in poverty in many American cities.”89
Fluoride and Aluminum
Aluminum interacts with fluoride to create a toxic combination. A study conducted
in Czechoslovakia adds force to the idea that aluminum may act synergistically
with fluoride to trigger the mechanisms of Alzheimer’s disease. This
study shows that some of the pathologic changes associated with AD are not
induced by aluminum alone, but by the aluminofluoride complexes, which may
act as the initial signal stimulating impairment of homeostasis, degeneration
and death of the cells. By influencing energy metabolism, these complexes
can accelerate the aging and impair the functions of the nervous system. “In
respect to the etiology of AD, the long-term action of aluminofluoride complexes
may represent a serious and powerful risk factor for the development of AD,” the
Incidentally, if you’re thinking that fluoride and aluminum are unlikely
to come together in the normal course of things, think again. Fluoride is a
direct byproduct of aluminum production. Aluminum is often added to drinking
water as a flocculating agent by the same folks who add the fluoride – your
local water authority.
Aluminum and fluoride form a number of complexes, the most deadly being aluminum
tetrafluoride.91 Czech researchers have shown that the body reacts to aluminum
tetrafluoride as if it were a phosphate ion capable of triggering G proteins.
These are water-soluble substances (i.e., hormones, neurotransmitters and growth
factors) that transmit messages from the outside to the inside of a cell.92
Aluminum tetrafluoride is capable of switching on G proteins without hormones,
neurotransmitters or growth factors present.93
Part 3 will cover fluoride accidents, how to avoid a fluoride overdose,
one city’s rejection of fluoridation and the difficulties of challenging
Gary Null, PhD
P.O. Box 918
New York, New York 10024 USA
Gary Null, PhD, has authored 50 books on health and nutrition and numerous
articles published in leading magazines. Null holds a PhD in human nutrition
and public health science from the Union Graduate School. He maintains a
Web site at www.garynull.com that presents research articles on optimizing
health through nutrition, lifestyle factors and alternative medicine.
Martin Feldman, MD, is assistant clinical professor of neurology at Mount
Sinai Medical School in New York City. He practices complementary medicine.
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fluorosis: trends in fluoride intake with special attention to infants.
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Clin Oral Investig 1998 Dec; 2(4):155-60.
3. Ouyang W, Li Y, Liu Z, et al. Effect caused by uptake of different levels
of calcium to enamel fluorosis in rats. (Article in Chinese) Zhonghua Kou
Quiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2000 Jan; 35(1):47-9.
4. Mascarenhas, AK. Risk factors for dental fluorosis: a review of the recent
literature. Pediatr Dent 2000 Jul-Aug; 22(4):269-77.
5. Heller KE, Sohn W, Burt BA, Feigal RJ. Water consumption and nursing characteristics
in infants by race and ethnicity. J Public Health Dent 2000 Summer; 60(3):140-6.
6. Kumar JV, Swango PA. Fluoride exposure and dental fluorosis in Newburgh
and Kingston, New York: policy implications. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol
1999 Jun; 27(3):171-80.
7. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus,
Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Standing Committee on the Scientific
Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board. National
Academy Press, Washington DC, 1997. Cited in Connett P: 50 reasons to oppose
fluoridation. Fluoride Action Network, at www.fluoridealert.org.
8. Connett P. 50 reasons to oppose fluoridation. Fluoride Action Network,
9. Rwenyonyi CM, Birkeland JM, Haugejorden O, Bjorvatn K. Age as a determinant
of severity of dental fluorosis in children residing in areas with 0.5 and
2.5 mg fluoride per liter in drinking water. Clin Oral Investig 2000 Sep;
10. Butler WJ, Segreto V, Collins E. Prevalence of dental mottling in school-aged
lifetime residents of 16 Texas communities. Am J Public Health 1985 Dec;
11. Gary Null interview with Dr. John Yiamouyiannis, March 10, 1995.
12. Grossman D. Fluoride’s revenge. The Progressive 1990 Dec; 29-31.
13. Hileman B. Fluoridation of water. Chemical & Engineering News 1988
Aug 1; 66:49.
14. Gary Null interview with Dr. John Yiamouyiannis, April 28, 1990.
15. Hileman, op. cit., 36.
16. Hileman, op. cit.
17. Connett, op. cit.
18. Arthritis: the nation’s leading cause of disability. National Center
for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Document last reviewed June 11, 2002.
19. Savas S, Cetin M, Akdogan M, Heybeli N. Endemic fluorosis in Turkish
patients: relationship with knee osteoarthritis. Rheumatol Int 2001 Sep;
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Coronado Press Inc., Lawrence, KS, 1978, 38.
21. Exner FB, Waldbott GL, Fluoride Poisoning in the Fluoridated Cities.
Part II of The American Fluoridation Experiment. Edited by J Rorty. Devin-Adair
Company, NY, 1957, 42-3.
22. Dasarathy S, Das TK, Gupta IP, Susheela AK, Tandon RK. Gastroduodenal
manifestations in patients with skeletal fluorosis. J Gastroenterol 1996
23. Jacobsen SJ, Goldberg J, Miles TP, Brody JA, Stiers W, Rimm AA. Regional
variation in the incidence of hip fracture: US white women aged 65 years
and older. JAMA 1990 Jul 25; 264(4):500-2.
24. Cooper C, Wickham CA, Barker DJ, Jacobsen SJ. Water fluoridation and
hip fracture. JAMA 1991 Jul 24; 266:513-4. (Letter, a reanalysis of data
presented in a 1990 paper.)
25. Danielson C, Lyon JL, Egger M, Goodenough GK. Hip fractures and fluoridation
in Utah's elderly population. JAMA 1992 Aug 12; 268(6):746-8.
26. Ibid, 746.
27. Riggs BL, Hodson SF, O’Fallon WM, Chao EY, Wahner HW, et al. Effect
of fluoride treatment on the fracture rates in postmenopausal women with
osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 1990 Mar 22; 322(12):802-9.
28. Hedlund LR, Gallagner JC. Increased incidence of hip fracture in osteoporotic
women treated with sodium fluoride. J Bone Miner Res 1989 Apr; 4(2):223-5.
29. Albright JA. The effect of fluoride on the mechanical properties of bone.
Transactions of the Annual Meeting of the Orthopedics Research Society. 1978;
30. Gordon SL, Corbin SB. Summary of workshop on drinking water fluoride
influence on hip fracture on bone health. (National Institutes of Health,
10 April, 1991) Osteoporos Int 1992 May: 2(3):109-17.
31. Hegmann KT, Horne BD, Gren LH, Knight S, Orme HT, Lyon JL. The effects
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