Part I of this article,
we discussed diabetes treatments and the dangers of alternative
inhalation insulin delivery systems when used as a replacement for
insulin shots.1,2 In recent times, we have seen the research we
discussed supported. Pfizer Pharmaceuticals has reported six lung
cancer cases resulting from the use of their FDA-approved Exubera,
an inhalation insulin product. Pfizer consequently withdrew the
drug from the market, taking a 2.5 billion-dollar loss.3,4 The FDA
still has not withdrawn their approval. Pharmaceutical giants Amlyin
and Eli Lilly have reported six deaths and 30 cases of pancreatitis
resulting from the use of the anti-hypoglycemic agent Byetta (Exenatide:
oral and injectable forms). These are good examples of the deadly
adverse effects of newly introduced, FDA-approved anti-diabetic
drugs. Fear of needles and a resistance to the inconvenience of
administering insulin injections have created a burgeoning demand
for alternative methods of treating diabetes. An apparent breakthrough
arrived with the development of insulin inhalation preparations.
While the FDA deemed this novel insulin preparation safe and effective,
Pfizer, as mentioned, withdrew their inhalation insulin product
after publication of our article detailing its dangers.1 Oral and
nasal spray insulin preparations are not much different than inhalation
insulin, which increases the incidence of cancers and other diseases,
hence none of these preparations should be approved for public use.
Given the inhalation insulin debacle, many research centers and
pharmaceutical companies are now scrambling to find other alternative
methods of delivery to replace painful subcutaneous insulin injections
and help make diabetics more compliant. One out of every ten health
care dollars spent in the United States goes to treat diabetic patients,
and loss of productivity results in a commensurate loss of billions
of dollars. It is estimated that the health care costs of US diabetics
are three times more than those of healthy individuals. Consequently,
besides the obvious health benefits, a safe, effective replacement
for subcutaneous insulin injections would save billions in health
care costs, given that there are currently more than 180 million
diabetics worldwide, a number destined to increase. At present,
we have two patents pending for the painless delivery of insulin
by time-honored subcutaneous injections and also a new locally applied
transmucosal insulin delivery system of existing insulin formulations,
which are safe and has been in use for decades. We hope to bring
these products to the market to help insulin-dependent diabetics
become more treatment-compliant.
In Part I of this article,
we described why insulin is carcinogenic in high concentrations.
Here, in Part II, we discuss the pros and cons of oral (swallowed)
and rectal insulin for diabetics as an alternative treatment to
both the standard injectable insulin and the failed inhalation insulin
Figure 1: Liver Anatomy and Its Function in the Removal of Blood
To understand how oral insulin works,
it is important to have anatomical and histological knowledge of
the liver and gastrointestinal tract and also understand how liver
function is affected by oral and endogenous insulin. The liver is
part of the digestive system. It weighs three pounds and performs
about 500 different functions in addition to playing an important
role in maintaining blood glucose levels. The liver receives 75%
of its blood from the digestive tract (portal veins), which contains
nutrients, including sugars, and 100% of insulin from the pancreas,
which pours into the liver in response to elevated blood sugar.
The liver receives only 25% of its blood supply from the heart (hepatic
artery) (see Figure 1), hence only 25% of subcutaneous insulin reaches
the liver. The liver removes glucose from the blood with the help
of insulin when blood glucose levels are high and stores it as glycogen.
When the amount of glucose in the blood falls below the level required
to meet the body's needs, the liver reverses this reaction, transforming
glycogen into glucose with the help of another pancreatic hormone
called glucagon and pouring it into the bloodstream for energy use.
Intestinal Histology and Absorption of Oral Insulin
Figure 2: Cross-section of intestinal villi
showing layers of mucous membrane and blood supply
SA402073 LifeART Royalty Free Photograph
Figure 3: Drawings and Diagrams of Intestinal Villi
To understand how the oral and rectal
insulin is absorbed into circulation from the digestive track –
and the possible adverse effects – knowledge of intestinal
histology is needed. Oral insulin and food pass from the stomach
after partial digestion by stomach acid to the small intestine.
The small intestine has millions of finger-like projections in the
lumen called villi (velvety surface), lined by single layer of epithelial
enterocele cells. The enterocele have hundreds of additional extensions
on their exposed surface towards the lumen called microvilli, which
are like tiny hairs ("brush border") coated with glycoprotein
layer. These constitute a semi-permeable membrane of the gut interior
wall and are the first structures to come in contact with food and
oral insulin. These enterocytes on the gut lining live only for
three to five days before they are shed into the gut lumen and replaced
by new cells from the crypt. The enterocele cells with microvillus
and glycoprotein coating are involved in absorbing oral insulin,
digested food with sugar, liquids, secretions, etc., and they also
act as barrier to prevent unwanted particulate matter from entering
the bloodstream. The villi increase the intestinal absorptive surface
area 300-fold and themicrovilli 600-fold, providing a massive absorption
surface of the gut lumen for oral insulin. The center of the villi
contains tiny blood vessels and are lymphatic. They collect the
absorbed digested material from the guts, including insulin taken
orally, and empty it into the portal vein to the liver and through
thoracic lymph duct to heart.
Crypts (of Lieberkuhn) are invaginations of the epithelium at the
base and between the villi, like the web of the fingers. The base
of the crypts contains stem cells that divide and provide the source
of all the epithelial cells in the crypts and the lining of the
gut and its secretory cells. Stem cells in the crypts divide to
form daughter cells. One daughter cell from each stem cell division
is retained as a stem cell. The other becomes committed to differentiate
as one of four pathways to become an enterocyte, enteroendocrine
cell, goblet cell, or Paneth cell. Cells in the enterocytes lineage
divide several more times as they migrate up the crypts, cover the
villi, and differentiate into the mature absorptive cells that transport
nutrients and enzymes as well as the oral insulin when developed.
To put it another way, enterocytes are born at the bottom of the
crypts, pass through childhood migrating up the walls of the crypts,
then settle down briefly to enjoy an absorptive adulthood on the
villi and then die (shed) in less than a week.
It is important to note that subcutaneous insulin injection is the
only method of insulin delivery at present. The main disadvantage
besides pain is that this delivery system does not reproduce the
physiological delivery of insulin to the liver – neither do
oral insulin preparations, despite claims by their developers and
promoters, as we will discuss later. In a normal individual, 100%
of insulin from the pancreas is delivered into the portal vein to
the liver, the primary site of action. Some of it escapes from the
liver to the systemic circulation to act on the muscle, but only
after the liver's insulin needs are met. On the other hand, oral
insulin enters the portal blood vessel system and the lymphatic
system (called lacteal, which carries equal amount to lymphatic
sac-chylus sac-thoracic duct) into systemic circulation instead
of to the liver. Hence, oral insulin may deliver 30-40 times absorbed
insulin into the liver compared to the 25% of the injected insulin.
As with injected insulin, orally delivered insulin takes a long
time to be absorbed and transported to the liver, which is the primary
site of insulin action, and high blood sugar may not play any role
in rapid absorption as happens with naturally produced insulin.
In theory, oral insulin methods should require less insulin per
dose to produce the desired effect on reaching the liver in diabetics.
Unfortunately, there is no oral delivery method yet developed in
which the amount of insulin equals natural insulin from pancreas,
100% of which is delivered to the liver.
Prerequisites for Oral Insulin Preparation
Many modalities of delivering insulin are in the works from inhaled
insulin to sprays to pill forms. From my investigation, the insulin
sprays (oral and nasal) and inhalation insulin, discussed in Part
I, have no place in insulin delivery system due to the increased
incidence of cancers and other diseases.1,2 The development of oral
insulin has been in works for decades, and the search for a viable
product has intensified since the failure of inhalation insulin
drugs. The difficulty is that insulin in pill form is destroyed
by digestive juices in the stomach and small intestines. For insulin
to escape the destructive action of digestive enzymes and acids,
it must be tagged or protected by a coating resistant to the action
of digestive juices. The insulin that escapes the onslaught of digestive
enzymes must be tagged onto substances that increase absorption
and facilitate the transfer of such insulin from the lumen of the
gut into circulation. These protective coatings and absorption facilitators
should be non-toxic and should not damage the protective lining
of the intestines' inner lining even with prolonged use. Further,
they should not have any adverse effects on the immune system barrier
lining the intestinal interior (villi), which is the first line
of defense against all invading infectious and toxic agents. None
of the oral insulin delivery methods in development meet these requirements
Some developers of oral insulin claim that three times the amount
of orally delivered insulin reaches the liver compared to insulin
delivered by subcutaneous injection. Unfortunately, these developers
forget that 100% of oral insulin does not enter the portal blood
to the liver as does naturally produced pancreatic insulin. Part
of the insulin is delivered to the lymphatic duct; part of it reaches
the portal circulation; and part of it is lost in the intestinal
wall. Thus no more than 30-40% reaches the liver, thus giving a
possible 5 to 15% advantage, compared to the injectable form --
not three times as claimed.
Many methods of oral insulin are being developed, including formulations
incorporating insulin into vitamin B12; adding a cholera-causing
toxin to facilitate transfer; trying gel forms, capsules, liquids,
and many other additives. None of these have resulted in much success.
Before oral insulin can be guaranteed as safe and market-ready,
these products need decades of study. The discovery of new method
of delivery may make headlines but, at present, that is all; no
reasonably priced, non-carcinogenic oral insulin product is on the
Oral Insulin Route
The lining epithelium (enterocytes) on the villi of the intestines
plays an important role in the digestion and absorption of intestinal
contents (food), including oral insulin. Because of the massive
amount of fluid (5-7 liters a day, digestive juices and extra fluids
intake, with and between meals) and semisolid food turnover, it
is likely that oral insulin would have to be taken either some time
before food or a long time after meals, making it unsuitable to
control a blood sugar level rise after meal. Otherwise, oral insulin
would have to be mixed with massive amount of intestinal secretions
and food. This, in turn, would result in loss of efficacy of the
oral insulin, as only a small amount will be absorbed and available
to reduce blood sugar after a meal, as happens with inhaled insulin.
To overcome this, the amount of insulin in oral preparations would
have to be large, as in inhalation insulin. When oral insulin is
taken on an empty stomach, part of the oral insulin can be:
by digestive enzymes,
- diluted with food and many liters
of digestive juices,
- deposited in the crypts (Crypts of
Lieberkuhn) between the villi,
- trapped in diverticulas in the intestines
- stuck to mucous lining of the villi
for a long period before it is absorbed or mechanically dislodged
and evacuated during the next bowel evacuation, or
- attached to the glycoprotein
lining of the microvilli to be absorbed to the portal blood, lymphatic
duct, and intestinal wall.
Once the insulin is absorbed, insulin
is distributed in the following ways:
- Some insulin passes the lining cells
of the villi processes.
- Some is deposited inside the villi
cells, and part is deposited below these cells
- Insulin is also absorbed by the blood
vessels in the center of the villi (see Figure 3), which is carried
to the portal circulation directly into the liver like natural
- Oral insulin is absorbed by the lymphatic
ducts, called lacteals, in the center of the villi and delivered
to systemic circulation where it acts like subcutaneous injected
insulin (see Figure 3).
- Some insulin may be picked up the
billions of plasma cells below the villi's mucous membrane lining
in the lamina propria of the intestines and get activated.
- Some insulin is picked up the muscle
layers and fat in the intestinal wall and used to transport the
glucose to these cell layers.
- Insulin absorbed by the lining
of the villi is shed into the lumen of the intestine without entering
the circulation. Every hour, 1/120th of the intestinal inner lining
wall is shed. Hence, 1/120 of the absorbed insulin inside the
lining of villus are shed into the intestinal lumen and mixed
with food. Part of it is digested and absorbed; the rest is evacuated
Oral Insulin, Insulin Receptors, and Cancer
Though the makers of oral insulin
delivery systems may claim advantages, these preparations have a
number of deleterious effects on the inner lining cells of the intestines.
Such effects can play havoc on patients' health and can be worse
than the inconvenience of taking subcutaneous insulin injections.
Oral insulin is effective only when the calculated dose is higher
than the amount given under the skin by injection, because a large
amount is lost, due to reasons detailed above. Oral insulin, then,
is not much different than inhaled insulin delivery systems, which
make about ten percent of the insulin they deliver bioavailable
to enter the bloodstream. The rest is deposited on the tracheo bronchial
tree, resulting in untold number adverse effects, including increased
development of cancers.1,2 The same result can be seen with the
potential use of oral insulin. The only advantage there is that
part of the insulin (about 30-40%) is directly absorbed and passed
on to the portal veins and reaches the liver where it is needed,
instead of circulating all over the body after subcutaneous injections.
Before it is absorbed by the lymph vessels (lacteals) and blood
vessels in the villi, oral insulin has to come in contact with the
lining cells of intestinal tract. The lining cells are very active;
they rapidly divide and are replaced every three to five days, illustrating
the dynamic nature of that 30 feet of the gastrointestinal track.
Further, to be absorbed, insulin must be tagged to other substances
to reach the intestinal surface mucosa. With the chronic use, insulin
may adversely affect the intestinal lining cells, increasing cell
growth and effecting cancerous changes in actively dividing crypt
Insulin has a more adverse stimulatory effect on dysplasic, precancerous,
and cancerous cells, which have up to ten times more insulin receptors
(ten more insulin-mediated glucose biochemical entry doors) than
normal cells, which each have a single insulin door.
The lining membrane, from the esophagus to the end of colon, is
exposed to physical and chemical assaults, as is the respiratory
tract, due to various kinds of food, drink, and digestive enzymes
with which it comes in contact. Can you imagine adding a cell stimulant
to these multiplying dysplasic cells. Even solitary, non-cancerous
fibrous tumors, similar to polyps, have more insulin receptors,
which facilitate glucose entry into cancer cells in large amounts,
promoting their growth, multiplication, and spread.5-17
The adverse effects of oral insulin can be divided into the following
routes of administration and their health consequences:
- Oral ingestion of insulin, formulated
as solid pills, capsules, gels, liquids, phospholipid (liposome)
components, tagged on to the vitamins (vitamin B12), and countless
other feasible formulations, including a delivery system using
nano insulin particles
- Rectal insulin suppository formulation
Possible Health Consequences of Oral Insulin
What effect will oral insulin, its preservatives, and absorption
enhancers have on the gut wall? Can these enhancers cause exfoliation
of the lining cells and the breaking of adhesions between lining
cells of the gut, resulting in breaching of the barrier between
blood and food? If so, can this result in leaky gut syndrome, which
can lead to many gastrointestinal (GI) diseases like irritable bowel
syndrome, celiac, Crohn's diseases, IBS, diarrhea, autoimmune diseases,
and infections (bacterial, viral, moulds, and fungi) and untold
number other diseases? Does anyone know the full effect of oral
insulin, which is a powerful growth factor on the intestinal parasites?
Many factors need to be considered:
1. All the following concerns need
to be addressed by any pharmaceutical or research centers developing
oral insulin for diabetics. What will result when oral insulin is
taken along with any of the following:
- Antibiotics, which can to lead
to the overgrowth of abnormal flora in the gastrointestinal tract
(bacteria, parasites, candida, fungi)
- Alcohol and caffeine (strong
- Foods and beverages contaminated
by parasites like Giardia lamblia, cryptosporidium, and blastocystis
hominis; by bacteria like helicobacter pylori, klebsiella, citrobacter,
pseudomonas, and others; mold and fungal mycotoxins in stored
grains and fruit and refined carbohydrates.
- Chemicals in fermented and processed
food (dyes, preservatives, peroxidized fats)
- In those patients with enzyme
deficiencies (e.g., celiac disease, lactase deficiency causing
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory
drugs (NSAIDs) like aspirin, ibuprofen, indomethacin, etc.; corticosteroids,
narcotics, blood thinners; hormones (in birth control pills and
other medications). Would oral insulin intensify the absorption
of hundreds of oral medications, resulting in adverse toxic effects?
- Chemotherapy and radiation
therapy cause immune system destruction and damage to the multiplying
crypt cells and enterocytes of the villi, resulting in denudation
of the intestinal lining (villi). When we take oral insulin in
these situations, what will happen to the oral insulin and what
will be its effect on these damaged intestinal lining cells? Will
oral insulin help in healing by stimulating cells to multiply
and replace the damaged cells? Or will oral insulin aggravate
damaged genetic conditions of cells, leading to infections and
tumor development? Or will more oral insulin be absorbed in these
- Diets heavy in highly refined
carbohydrates (e.g., white bread, candy bars, cookies, soft drinks)
2. Dysbiosis (also called dysbacteriosis)
is a microbial imbalance inside the gut resulting from antibiotic
use, chemotherapeutic agents, etc. There are billions of beneficial
microbial colonies inside our gut that carry out a series of helpful
and necessary functions and protect the body from the penetration
of pathogenic microbes. Can the use of oral insulin for long time
decrease their ability to check growth, allowing an overgrowth of
harmful colonies, with subsequent local (thrush) and systemic damage,
including leaky gut syndrome, allergies, and other diseases? Conversely,
can oral insulin restore the intestinal flora to homeostatic state?
3. It is estimated that the human
gut contains 1000 species of ten trillion bacteria. These play a
role in gastric ulcer, autism, cancers, fatty liver, ADHD, leaky
gut syndrome, inflammatory bowel diseases, etc.9 According to Dr.
J. Nicholson of Imperial College in London, "almost every
sort of disease has a gut bug connection somewhere." He says
that "if you mess around with gut microbes, you mess around
the brain chemistry in major ways. Can you imagine how health will
be affected by the changes oral insulin, with its preservatives
and absorption enhancers, makes in the gut microbial environment?
Before oral insulin methods are approved, their effect on gut flora
should be studied to prevent any future diseases comparable to those
caused with the use of inhalation insulin.1
4. Destruction of villi and microvilli
of the intestines by oral insulin containing biochemical addictives
can lead to malabsorption of nutrients and persistent osmotic diarrhea,
often accompanied by fever, as seen in celiac disease and microvillus
inclusion disease, etc.
5. Insulin-containing particles
impacted (stuck) at the crypts are not absorbed into circulation.
Crypts of the gut contain the stem cells and are in a dynamic state
of cell division to replace the inner lining of the gut. Direct
contact with oral insulin will surely enhance the growth and multiplication
of these cells, leading to increased incidence of polyps and cancers.
6. Direct contact between oral
insulin and precancerous cells in the gut lining and polyps can
result in their multiplication and transformation into cancers.
7. When impacted in diverticulas,
the insulin-containing oral formulation may enhance the infection
of any local cysts (as shown with inhaled insulin) with increased
incidence of diverticulitis. This may also stimulate the cell growth,
causing cancers in the diverticulas.
8. There are 183,000 plasma cells
for each cubic millimeter below the villi cells (in lamina propria).
The absorption of insulin through the lining of the intestinal mucosa
will stimulate these cells, which will then become over-active and
produce large amounts of immune globulins ( IgA, IgG, IgM, and IgG).
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease have a higher percentage
of some of these immune globulins, which may even increase more
due to the supply of oral insulin growth factor. The effect of overstimulation
of these plasma cells by oral insulin is unknown.
9. One of the outcomes of inhalation
insulin (oral spray and nasal spray insulin) was an increase in
the level of insulin antibodies from baseline levels of 6% to 35%.
In contrast, there is hardly any change in the patients with subcutaneous
insulin therapy.1 Orally administered insulin can result in massive
insulin antibody production from plasma cells (in lamina propria).
The adverse effects of such antibodies include retarding the action
of soluble insulin in the blood and removing this insulin as an
immune complex by the immune (reticulo-endothelial) system, making
less insulin available to lower the blood sugar.
10. Low doses of orally administered
auto-antigens suppress autoimmunity by inducing antigen-specific
regulatory T-cells in the gut, which act by releasing inhibitory
cytokines at the target organ. Because type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune
disease, the studies made on the rats using insulin not only failed
to prevent type 1 diabetes, but when insulin was administered with
an adjuvant, this actually accelerated the diabetes by destroying
insulin-producing cells in the T-cell activated immune system.18
Can you imagine the acceleration and/or complete destruction of
insulin-producing cells in the pancreas due to use of oral insulin
with adjuvant? Type 2 diabetes may be converted to type 1 diabetes
as the result of insulin antibodies and antibody-containing T-cells
of the immune system attacking the insulin-producing beta cells
in the pancreas. Oral insulin should not be used unless the product
is free of these adverse effects as demonstrated through large-scale
11. Gastrin is a peptide hormone,
synthesized and released from stomach (gastric antral G cells).
Increased gastrin in the blood (hypergastrinemia) is found in peptic
ulcers; treatment of GERD with proton pump inhibitors (PPI); secretion
of gastrin from tumor, (gastrinomas- ZES); endocrine neoplasm; atrophic
gastropathy; in PPI therapy, and a host of other conditions. High
gastrin in the blood causes benign and cancerous tumors in GI tract.
Gastrin simulates the growth and proliferation of epithelial cells,
the normal mucosa, and the multiplying crypts of the villi, predisposing
for colorectal cancer, due to increases in angiogenesis and inhibition
of apoptosis by gastrin.19-22 Because insulin stimulates cell multiplication
(carcinogenic), taking oral insulin should further increase incidence
of gastrointestinal tract cancers, due to synergistic action with
gastrin growth factor in the above conditions. Hence, if oral insulin
is approved, those with these conditions and those who use PPI should
be warned about adverse outcomes.
12. It has been observed that gastric
acid suppression, using H2-receptor antagonists (cimetadine) and
PPI, is associated with an increased risk of community-acquired
pneumonia,19 risk of C. dif infection,20 hip fractures21 due to
low calcium absorption, and interference with osteoclasts' acid
production.22 What will be the result of H2-receptor antagonists
(cimetadine) and PPI use with long-time use of oral insulin on these
13. In familial polyposis (FAP),
an inherited genetic condition of the colon and rectum, adenomatous,
swollen, and thickened multiple tumor polyps develop on the inner
lining of the bowel. Polyps turning into cancers are a major cause
of death in these patients. Can you imagine giving these patients
oral or rectal suppository insulin, which promotes cell division,
making polyps larger and turning them into cancers? In diabetics
with this condition, oral and rectal (suppository) insulin should
It is only a matter of time before an oral insulin delivery system
for diabetics will be formulated and marketed. But we still don't
know the full effects of the prolonged use of this form of insulin
on our 30-feet-long intestinal lining with its billions of cells
and trillions of gut bacteria (flora). The health risk for these
treatments may take a long time to unravel as did that with the
use of Avandia (oral anti-diabetic agent), Vytorin (anti-cholesterol
drug increasing the incidence of cancer) Vioox (used for pain resulting
in heart attack deaths), and, more recently, Exubera (lung cancers)
and Byetta (pancreatitis).
Rectal Insulin Suppository
The absorption and effect of insulin suppository (rectal) is much
different than that of oral insulin due to anatomical differences
in blood supply to the rectum. It is important to note that when
the insulin is absorbed from the rectal mucosa (mostly from the
lower half of the rectum), it won't reach the liver in the same
way that oral (25-30-40%) and natural pancreatic insulin (100%)
does. It reaches middle and inferior rectal veins, which drain to
the systemic circulation (inferior vena cava), then into the heart
and on to the liver. Superior rectal veins drain to the portal veins
that enter the liver. To reach the superior rectal vein's absorption-draining
area, a suppository has to be deposited about four inches from the
anus – which is not possible. Hence, the action of insulin
suppository when absorbed is similar to subcutaneous injection.
Rectal insulin absorption is unpredictable and erratic at best.
Besides the social difficulty in inserting the suppository, it can
get mixed with fecal remnant if rectum is not completely empty and
evacuated with next bowel movement. Like inhalation, sprayed, or
oral insulin modes, this method of delivery has a carcinogenic effect
on the rectal mucosal cells with which it comes in contact.1
Word of Caution to the FDA and the
Oral insulin, if developed and FDA-approved without any health hazards,
would be a multibillion-dollar product. One of the developers claims
that the oral insulin is a "breakthrough method of delivering
insulin orally" that "could bring relief to millions…only
an oral capsule mimics the physiological delivery of insulin."
These are spurious claims. Such exacerbated claims are not new to
this industry when promoting a new product and promoting pharmaceutical
company stocks. I recommend that inhalation, oral, and nasal insulin
sprays not be FDA-approved. They should not be used by tobacco users,
asthmatics, persons with chronic oral-nasal- pharyngeal-esophageal-lung
diseases, those with other precancerous lesions (leukoplakia) of
the lungs, mouth, and nose. Oral or rectal insulin should never
be used by those who have familial polyposis. The FDA must fully
investigate the health risks, including the concerns we have enumerated,
and mandate post-approval surveillance in addition to pre-approval
studies by the developers of these products.
Dr. T.R. Shantha has published
more than 125 research papers in distinguished journals such as
New England Journal of Medicine,
Journal of Cell Biology, and others.
He is the author of six books and the holder of seven patents. In
2005, Dr. T. R. Shantha received the distinguished physician award
from the 42,000-member physician organization Association of Physicians
from India (AAPI), and he was nominated for the Nobel Prize in physiology
and medicine in 2007. Dr. Shantha is also the discoverer of the
drug Terbutaline, which is used all over the world for treating
priapism. A pioneer in alternative medicine, he has designed many
innovative therapies, utilizing both traditional and alternative
approaches, for the treatment of cancers and many other incurable
diseases. Dr. Shantha has spent 53 years in medical research and
in practice, is triple boarded, and is considered by many to be
an expert on insulin potential therapy, hyperbaric therapy, and
the treatment of both hyperthermia and pain.
Jessica G. Shantha is a medical
student at the Morehouse School of Medicine.
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(1/09 Editor note: Use the www.insulinnews.com
link at your own risk. It tried to install MS Office components
and would only allow me to escape by turning the power off. There
is a http://www.insulin-news.com
site, perhaps the "real" site.)
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and pharmacodynamics of pulmonary insulin using the AERx insulin
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EA. Pulmonary vasodilation in the rat by insulin in vitro could
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