Gibson, Nick Nolte, William Moyers, Keith Urban, Kate Moss, Willie
Nelson, Eric Musselman
(the Kings' head coach, for you non-basketball fans), and numerous
other famous people have been outed as alcohol or illegal drug users
during the past year, some for repeat offenses. As millions of Americans
who were in their twenties in the 1960s can attest, to use drugs isn't
necessarily to abuse them. Yet there seems to be a subset of the population,
even among those with plenty of money to buy the best treatment available,
who cannot move beyond their drug. I join a growing number of researchers
and practitioners who have a logical explanation why and a reasonable
solution to this problem.
We believe that there is a disconnect between what science knows an addict needs
and what society provides as treatment. Yes, addicts need behavior modification
training. They also need mental health counseling and a drug-free place to live
and a job with a living wage. Yet, even before all that, they need brain repair
at the molecular level.
Let me explain how we do the necessary repair work in Sacramento using acupuncture,
nutrition, nutritional supplements, yoga, tai chi, qigong, and Emotional Freedom
Technique (EFT). Because you will most likely be interested in what you can quickly
apply to your own medical practice or personal life, I will emphasize the acupuncture
and nutrition components.
It Started with Acupuncture
During the mid-1980s, the jails in Miami and other Florida cities were crowded
with cocaine users. One judge on the 11th Circuit Court was given a year off
the bench to find a solution. Judge Herbert Klein was impressed with the group
acupuncture program at Lincoln Hospital in the South Bronx run by psychiatrist
Michael Smith, MD. Soon Smith was helping Klein and others, including former
US Attorney General Janet Reno, design the country's first Drug Court, which
opened in Dade County, Florida in 1989. In addition to acupuncture, the Drug
Court included 12-Step meetings and counseling sessions as the carrot and time
in jail as the stick to help nudge people into recovery.
Across the country in San Francisco, acupuncturist Pat Keenan remembered seeing
Chinese doctors using surgical tape to stick plump black plant seeds called semen
viccariae on the ears of children in a clinic in Nanjing when she had studied
there. The ear seeds were pressed as a form of acupressure to treat various ailments.
Now working in a public health clinic in a poor neighborhood, Pat decided to
apply the seeds to drug-exposed babies. "The...semen viccariae were chosen
because they are the right consistency and shape so they don't irritate the baby's
skin," wrote Pat in the clinic newsletter back in 1991. She chose three
ear points commonly used in acupuncture: kidney, brain stem, and "shenmen," a
point used to increase endorphins. Babies, even rigid PCP-exposed infants, quickly
responded, relaxing into quiet softness in her arms.
I wanted to apply this cleverly simple and inexpensive protocol in Sacramento,
so I called our local county hospital and was introduced to a counselor whose
boss hired me to give ear acupuncture to women in recovery. (I never did use
the seeds on children.)
Wanting to spread the work, a small group of acupuncturists and others created
a nonprofit organization that came to be known as Community Addiction Recovery
Association (CARA, pronounced as "care-ah," to emphasize the care
we could provide). Our timing couldn't have been better. Overcrowding in our
local jails had resulted in a hefty fine and forced the Criminal Justice Cabinet,
a collaboration of all major criminal justice players in the county, to seek
Enter Michael Smith, MD, who answered a request from one of our original Board
Members, psychiatric technician Daniel Uselmann, to speak here at a public forum.
Smith, in San Francisco for a conference, drove himself the two hours from San
Francisco to Sacramento with his usual generosity and zeal. After he spoke, the
law enforcers agreed to fund acupuncture in the pilot drug court they were planning
for our county.
We've been treating clients five days a week, one hour a day, since Drug Court
began in November of 1995. Many choose needles during the week and seeds (or
magnets, which are tinier and more attractive on the ear than seeds) for the
weekend, when acupuncture isn't available. Needles cost a few cents each. Treating
a dozen or more people simultaneously makes it cost-effective, especially since
people who are resistant to counseling can still be helped.
In some locations (Arizona, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois,
Indiana, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, New Mexico, New York, Nova Scotia, Ontario,
Prince Edward Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, and
Washington), non-acupuncturists, such as social workers, nurses, corrections
officers, and case workers can learn to insert needles and, after a 70-hour training
(see NADA; Resources), can work as an Acupuncture Detoxification Specialist.
Since these professionals are often already on staff, the cost of acupuncture
within a community or care facility can be radically reduced.
Whether with needle, seed, or magnet, auriculotherapy stimulates a cranial nerve
branch in the ear. When needling, we use the points named Shenmen (to increase
endorphins), Sympathetic (which relaxes the sympathetic nervous system), and
Kidney, Liver, and Lung (the three major detox organs). How do we know it works?
In a 1999, retrospective cohort study published in the Journal of Substance Abuse
Treatment, Michael Shwartz of Boston University looked at detoxification readmission
rates of clients treated in outpatient and short-term residential treatment for
substance abuse detoxification, some with acupuncture, some not. No matter how
he looked at the data, acupuncture clients were less likely to be readmitted
for detoxification within six months.
Food, Glorious Food
During the fall of 1995, I read an article about a nutrition-based drug treatment
program in Minneapolis run by Joan Larson, PhD, (described in her Seven Weeks
to Sobriety; see Resources) and also heard a lecture by an ex-con polydrug abuser
who raved about the nutrition-based program of Kathleen DesMaisons, PhD (described
in Potatoes Not Prozac; see Resources). A nutrient-based
treatment program made
so much sense!
While some emphasize changing one's diet and others are sure individualized nutrients
are essential, the goal for all addiction nutrition practitioners is permanent
brain repair. Larson at Health Recovery Center in Minneapolis, Minnesota; DesMaisons
at Radiant Recovery in Albuquerque New Mexico; Julia Ross, MA, MFT, at Recovery
Systems in Mill Valley California; Clark Inkanish at TK Wolf in Tulsa Oklahoma;
James Braly, MD, at Bridging the Gaps in Winchester Virginia; Joseph Beasley,
MD, at Comprehensive Medical Care in Amityville New York; and Charles Gant, MD,
in Syracuse New York, among others, have discovered that by giving the bodies
the raw materials they need, clients make it through the tough early days of
withdrawal and beyond feeling healthier and happier than they have for years.
After a couple years of listening to my nagging, the Drug Court supervisor found
extra money at the end of the fiscal year and allowed CARA to begin a nutrition
program. I hired Jan Trifiro, a certified nutritionist and former junior high
school teacher (big help with the Drug Court clientele!) to create a six-week
curriculum of basic nutrition concepts based on the work of DesMaisons.
The day begins with a frozen fruit-whey powder blended drink to get the methamphetamine
users used to eating regularly again and to provide everyone with an easily digestible
source of protein. Clients fill out a food-mood journal in acupuncture class
each morning, in which they list what they ate and drank the day before and how
they felt. Each week, Trifiro reviews the journals with each client. Then she
class on the basics of healthy eating, including the difference between simple
and complex carbohydrates, the importance of hydration, and the definition of
a healthy fat or oil. The favorite part of the whole program comes next: food!
The group cooks together and eats lunch. They may be making ground turkey burgers
or whole wheat crust vegetarian pizza. Whatever it is, there are few leftovers.
Brain Repair in a Bottle
In four to six weeks, we must work our magic in our clients' lives, since our
part of Drug Court involves only Phase One of a four-phase program. Luckily for
us, subsequent Drug Court supervisors have supported our expanded program financially
and politically. Julia Ross calls the physical consequences of addiction a "brain
wreck." The information needed to clear the tracks is "profound but
not difficult to grasp and apply." It all begins with vitamins.
After years of chasing their next high, our clients exhibit many signs and symptoms
of malnourishment; their teeth are rotted; their digestion is a misery; their
skin is sallow and marked; and their nerves are hypersensitive. We give everyone
a multivitamin, a B complex for their nervous system, 100 mg of fish oil to increase
their catecholamines and provide essential fatty acids, and 1000 mg of vitamin
C (in the form of Emergen-C packets, which are sweet and tasty in a glass of
water) to help them detox. We individualize amino acid packets by asking clients
questions and having them complete a questionnaire. Our goal is to quickly begin
neurotransmitter repair. It's amazing how quickly clients notice a difference.
Since Austrian Otto Loewi discovered the first neurotransmitter, now called acetylcholine,
in 1921, over 300 others have been discovered. Luckily for those of us in the
addiction field, we're mostly concerned with just four. Let's start with the
catecholamines: dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. The catecholamines
are what wake you up, focus your brain, and put color into your day. Without
enough catecholamines, life is grey, boring, and disorganized. Anyone with diagnosed
with ADD/ADHD needs more catecholamines. You only have to notice how many coffee
shops are on your city's streets to realize we are a catecholamine-deficient
people. You may also notice that methamphetamine abuse is reaching epic proportions.
Some 500 counties questioned in 2005 named methamphetamine abuse as their largest
drug problem and methamphetamine, the one drug causing the most incarcerations
(Angelo D. Kyle, NA Co-President and Bill Hansell, NACo President-Elect. The
Meth Epidemic in America, Two Surveys of US Counties. July 5, 2005).
The second important amino acid for addiction treatment is tryptophan, a metabolic
precursor for the neurotransmitter serotonin. In the 1980s, tryptophan was inexpensive
and easily available in every health food store. Psychiatrists used tryptophan
to increase levels of serotonin in cases of insomnia and depression. The amino
acid's reputation was sullied in 1989 when a single polluted batch of tryptophan
from Showa Denka, one of several Japanese suppliers, caused eosinophilia myalgia
syndrome which killed eleven Americans and sickened many more. Showa Denka stopped
producing tryptophan. Other suppliers continued to ship safe tryptophan to American
hospitals, American baby food manufacturers, and foreign buyers, but the supply
of tryptophan on health food shelves quickly dried up. Recently tryptophan has
appeared again for over-the-counter purchase.
Meanwhile, another metabolic precursor of serotonin was discovered in an African
bean called Griffonia simplicifolia. This precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan or 5-HTP,
is an intermediary between tryptophan and serotonin and can cross the blood-brain
barrier to increase levels of serotonin in the central nervous system. According
to a handy amino acid therapy chart designed by Julia Ross and described in her
book The Mood Cure (see Resources), symptoms
of serotonin deficiency include anxiety, irritability, premenstrual syndrome,
panic attacks, suicidal thoughts,
a dislike of hot weather, difficulty getting to sleep and difficulty staying
asleep, low self-esteem, obsessive-compulsive thoughts and behaviors, and the
kind of depression that perceives all life's woes as one's own fault.
The third important amino acid for addiction treatment is phenylalanine. Phenylalanine
is used to maintain levels of endorphins, those powerful pain relievers and mood
elevators that create an effect characterized as the "runner's high." The
most common symptoms of endorphin deficiency are hyper-sensitivity, low threshold
for pain, a tendency to become easily hooked into sentimental TV commercials,
a tendency to cry easily, chronic pain, and depression. Unlike tyrosine and 5HTP,
phenylalanine doesn't make more of a neurotransmitter. It destroys the enzyme
that causes endorphins to self-destruct and so extends their life. To build more
endorphins, a person must consume adequate protein in meals.
As with all amino acids, phenylalanine is a three-dimensional molecule and has
a natural twist to it. With amino acids, L- indicates a left twist (the Latin
is laevus), and D- indicates right (the Latin is dexter). It's the D- form that
maintains endorphins, but for manufacturers, it's cheaper to mix the two. Some
of the L- form converts to L-tyrosine. The D-form is patented and is quite useful
for relieving pain while avoiding the stimulation of the L-form.
The fourth amino acid useful for addiction treatment is gamma aminobutyric acid
(GABA), which is also the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the body. Anxiety
and muscle tension are signs of deficient GABA, as are cravings for tranquilizing
drugs, marijuana, and alcohol.
The Drug-Neurotransmitter Connection
|stops depression &
compulsions, enables sleep
(250-1000 mg 2-4x/day
Alcohol and marijuana can affect all the neurotransmitters.
Abbreviated from an expanded version found
in "Nutritional Rehab." In
The Mood Cure by Julia Ross. New York: Viking Penguin; 2002:250.
As usual, there are contraindications for amino acid use, and we
thank Julia Ross for teaching them to us. We don't give amino acids
to our bipolar clients. Their needs are beyond our abilities right
now. In addition, we don't give amino acids to people on psychiatric
medications for any diagnosis without consulting their psychiatrist.
We do not give L-Tyrosine or DL-Phenylalanine to people with a history
of melanoma, high blood pressure, migraines, or Graves' Disease, and,
sometimes, the autoimmune disease called Hashimoto's thyroiditis. And
we do not give GABA to people with extremely low blood pressure.
Is there research to back up the nutrition approach to drug treatment? Yes,
and although there isn't room here to describe the researchers and their work,
you can find some by searching PubMed (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/),
as well as your usual search engines, for the work of Kenneth Blum, PhD; Ernest
MD, PhD; Michael
Trachtenberg, PhD; Richard Wurtman, MD; and Eric Braverman, MD, to name a few.
Several program providers have also reported on their protocols, most notably
the following: Joan Mathews Larson, PhD, found a 74% success rate, after evaluating
100 clients over one to three-and-one-half years following graduation from
treatment. These results were published in the International
Journal of Biosocial and Medical Research. (1987; 9 (1):92- 100). Julia Ross's 79% success
rate, after following 100 clients for one year, is unpublished but was reported
at the First National Conference on Reward Deficiency Syndrome, San Francisco,
November 12-13, 2000; and there was the 80% success rate of patients who maintained
Charles Gant, MD, PhD's nutritional protocols, remaining drug and alcohol-free
two years after graduating from formal treatment, as reported in Dr Grant's
book, End Your Addiction Now (see Resources). One anecdotal report comes from
Cathie Scott of Sedona, Arizona. At age 45, Scott was a 28-year veteran of
drugs and alcohol. She signed herself into Larson's treatment center and recalls, "In
three days, I felt better than I'd felt in ten years."
At the Sacramento County Drug Court, we have created a program integrating
all the elements we think are important in addition to acupuncture and nutrition:
* Probation officers on-site and biweekly visits to court before a
judge provide ongoing accountability and consequences, which clients
admit is needed and appreciated.
* Counseling and case management provide a safe place to learn to
stop hiding from uncomfortable feelings behind drugs and instead work
to recognize that these feelings are a necessary part of being human.
* Acupuncture provides a peaceful place where brain chemistry begins
to heal, pain begins to disappear, a natural sense of inner calm is
easier to generate, and clients notice cravings melting away.
* Yoga, tai chi, and qigong for an hour each week reconnect the client
with his/her body, a foreign feeling for most addicts who have spent
years, often decades, ignoring their physicality in search of a high.
* Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) is a simplified
version of a system begun several decades ago in Southern California
by clinical psychologist
Roger Callahan, PhD. Callahan discovered that tapping on acupuncture
points in certain order, while giving verbal instructions to the body,
resulted in astounding relief of phobias, allergies, pain, and post-traumatic
stress disorder (PTSD). One of Callahan's students, a retired engineer
named Gary Craig, shortened the tapping sequence, revised the wording,
and called it Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT). Instead of charging
several thousand dollars for the training, Craig gives away the manual
for EFT on his website at www.emofree.com and
encourages everyone to put it to use. Since the majority of women addicts
suffer PTSD and
so do many of the men, it may be the modality
clients use most frequently outside class. I've used it myself to stop
sugar cravings and writer's block, eliminate body pain (including helping
others stop their pain), dissolve allergic reactions, and banish the
upset of old memories. It is hard to believe something so powerful
can be so simple. I recommend you read archive emailed newsletters
at www.emofree.com to familiarize yourself with the places to tap and
the way to create sentences that act like magic wands for healing.
You can also access a how-to from Dr. Joseph Mercola's website (http://www.mercola.com/forms/eftcourse2.htm).
The CARA Model Of Brain Repair
The CARA model of brain repair is still a work-in-progress and probably always
will be as we learn new forms of treatment and fine-tune those we use and love.
Not every client is ready to bloom even with all our care. That's the nature
of the disease, since we humans are more than just our biochemistry; we are
also our history and our dreams. However, even those who struggle appreciate
how different our program is from any other program they've attended
Want to know more about how nutrition,
acupuncture, and mind-body exercises can treat addiction? CARA hosts
Beyond Talk Therapy: New
Frontiers in Addiction Treatment, a conference featuring over two dozen
of the country's top experts in non-pharmaceutical methods of
addiction treatment, September 27 -29, 2007, in Sacramento, California.
For more information, please contact our event planner, Details Details,
at 916-443-3855, and check out our website, www.carasac.org!
Helio Medical Supplies, Santa Clara, CA, 800-672-2726
Everything for the acupuncturist: seeds, magnets, needles, office
supplies, and more.
Amino Acids, Fish Oil, Vitamins
Some companies I've used because they are inexpensive:
Metabolic Maintenance, Sisters, OR, 800-772-7873
NOW Foods, Bloomingdale, IL, 888-669-3663
Threshold Enterprises (a one-stop shop for dozens of companies),
SOS (Secular Organizations for Sobriety, or Save Our Selves)
4773 Hollywood Blvd. Hollywood, California 90027 USA
323-666-4295, Fax 323-666-4271
A secular alternative to traditional "I admit I am powerless and
turn to God"-
type 12-Step programs
22230 Loma Vista Drive, Sacramento, CA 95825 USA
916-485-2272; Fax 916-485-2272
Newly formed membership organization for network practitioners using
nonpharmaceutical brain repair methods; also lobbies for more inclusion
of these methods in everyday treatment programs.
National Acupuncture Detoxification Association
Jay Renaud, Director
PO Box 1927
Vancouver, WA 98668
Offers an international, 70-hour standardized training for health care
workers, addiction specialists, acupuncturists, and counselors to perform
auriculotherapy (treatment of the ears) and understand the unique dynamics
of work in the addiction community.
787 W. Woodbury Rd. #2
Altadena, CA 91001
Billing itself as "the world's largest site on non-drug approaches
health," Safe Harbor is a nonprofit corporation offering referrals,
testimonials, local lectures, national conferences, and hope in a crazy
world that has separated streams of funding for mental health and addiction
programs and research.
Books on Addiction Nutrition
Here are written directions for everyone's needs, from Sahley's fast-read
pamphlets to the Millers' thorough overview to Ross's, Gant's, and
Larson's carefully crafted how-tos to DesMaisons's focus on food
to Cass's expansive vision. Keep reading the scientific parts and
the differences between the amino acids until their names are as
familiar as Uncle Joe and Auntie Kate, and with embarrassing ease,
you will change lives.
Clean & Sober: Complementary
and Natural Strategies for Healing the Addicted Brain
Merlene Miller and David Miller, PhD
Woodland Publishing; 2005
Aminos and food, acupuncture and ear pressure, chiropractic and brainwave
biofeedback, exercise and aromatics and more; the Millers reveal what's
going on in the world of drug-free drug treatment and leave the reader
with a smile of relief that recovery can include what's comfortable,
doable, and fun.
The Mood Cure: The 4-Step Program to Take Charge of Your Emotions
Julia Ross, MA
New York: Viking Penguin, 2002
Explains the connections of mood to adrenal and thyroid gland hormone
imbalances, how to eliminate food cravings, and quickly figure out
the nutrients and dietary changes that will bring back clearheaded
focus and a joyful attitude while eliminating a need for drugs. We
have given this book to clients upon graduation from Drug Court.
Joan Mathews Larson, PhD
New York; Random House; 2001
Originally titled Seven Weeks to Emotional
Health, Larson's publisher
chose one popular problem to highlight in the title of the paperback,
but it's truly encyclopedic in covering all manner of emotional disturbances,
including addiction, aggression, and ADD. An excellent guidebook for
self-care or for designing a professional treatment program by the
Mother of Addiction Nutrition.
Seven Weeks to Sobriety
Joan Mathews Larson, PhD
New York: Ballentine; 1997
Personal grief was transformed into public welfare after her teenage
son's suicide in recovery led Dr. Larson to research the hypoglycemia-alcoholism
connection. Her effort to connect the research dots has led to this
extraordinary bible of self-care and a successful treatment program
Potatoes Not Prozac
Kathleen DesMaisons, PhD
New York: Simon and Schuster (Fireside); 1999
Chapter Five Brain Chemistry 101 is a treasure in explaining simply
and usefully the neurotransmitter connection to addiction.
Hyla Cass, MD, Patrick Holford
New York: Penguin Putnam (Avery); 2003
A Los Angeles holistic psychiatrist, author, and frequent presenter
at conferences on spirituality, holistic health, and addiction, Cass
and her coauthor Patrick Holford cover the terrain of feeling good
from every imaginable viewpoint. We have given this book to clients
upon graduation from Drug Court.
How to Defeat Alcoholism: Nutritional Guidelines for Getting Sober
Joseph D. Beasley, MD
Times Books; 1989
Beasley has written so many books on the subject of successful treatment
for alcoholism that it's amazing he isn't fed up with America's stubborn
resistance to what works.
End Your Addiction Now: The Proven Nutritional Supplement Program
Set You Free
Charles Gant, MD, PhD, and Greg Lewis, PhD
New York: Warner Books; 2002
One of the few excellent nutrition-oriented self-care guides with full
chapters on stopping smoking.
Alcoholism: The Cause & Cure
Alternative Approaches to End Alcohol Abuse; 2004
Petralli runs an alcoholism treatment program in Los Angeles based
on nutrition and naturopathic principles with unbridled enthusiasm
and energy. This book has everything from bowel cleansing to meal planning
from "The laws of health are not negotiable" to "It's
a beautiful journey, relax and enjoy it."
Breaking Your Rx Addiction Habit
Billie J. Sahley, PhD, Katherine M. Birkner, CRNA, PhD
San Antonio, Texas: Pain & Stress Publications; 1996
Sahley, a pain management specialist, and her coauthor produce a variety
of pamphlets on addiction treatment via nutrition that need proofreading
but are useful for their brevity. She also creates formulas for brain
repair such as Brain Link. She runs the Pain and Stress Clinic in San
Antonio, Texas, where her staff uses email and phone for consultation.
Cleansing the Body, Mind, and Spirit
Berkley Publishing Group; 1998
This is my book on the myriad ways one can detoxify the body, but since
of print, I buy it like everybody else, used, from the Internet. Check
out Chapter 14 on "Addiction and Substance Abuse Detox."
The Healing Nutrients Within
Eric R. Braverman, MD, with Carl C. Pfeiffer, MD, PhD, Ken Blum, PhD, &
Richard Smayda, DO
Laguna Beach, California: Basic Health Publications;2003
An important overview of amino acids for the nonscientist. Lead author
Eric Braverman, MD, has experience applying amino acids to addiction.
He runs a comprehensive medical treatment center in New York.
Under the Influence: A Guide to the Myths and Realities of Alcoholism
Dr. James R. Milam and Katherine Ketcham
New York; Bantam; 1984
One of the classics that opened many professionals' eyes to the nutrition
link to addiction.
Books on Acupuncture for Detox and Recovery
Transformation & Recovery: A Guide for
the Design and Development of Acupuncture-Based Chemical Dependency
Alex G. Brumbaugh
Stillpoint Press; 1994
Still the bible of acudetox, covering everything from the practicalities
of opening an acupuncture treatment program to the spiritual dimensions
of addiction work.
Fighting Drug Abuse with Acupuncture: The Treatment That Works
Ellinor R. Mitchell
Pacific View Press; 1995
Mitchell took the time to interview the key players in acudetox and
tell their story.
Some Studies and Other Articles on Non-Pharmaceutical Brain Repair
Articles describing the genetic basis for linking addiction to other
compulsive, addictive, impulsive behaviors are found in many of the
In Medical Practice: A Reference Manual and Study Guide, 2001 Edition by Alan R. Gaby, MD. Section 25, Alcoholism and
Drug Addiction; pp. 253-255. Lists 43 scientific studies of various
nutritional substances used for addiction treatment
Blum K, et al. Reward deficiency syndrome. American
1996; 84 (2):132.
Blum K, Braverman ER.Reward deficiency syndrome: a biogenetic model
for the diagnosis and treatment of impulsive, addictive and compulsive
behaviors. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. November 2000; Vol. 32 (Supplement).
The Journal, a quarterly, has been
published since 1967. Subscriptions are $90/year, available through
Haight-Ashbury Publications, 856 Stanyon
Street, San Francisco, CA 94117; 415-752-7601; www.drdave.org/journal.
Noble EP. The D2 dopamine receptor gene: a review of association studies
alcoholism and phenotypes. Alcohol. 16 (1):33.
Volkow ND, et al. High levels of dopamine d2 receptors in unaffected
members of alcoholic families. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006; 63(9):999-1008.
Volkow ND. Treat the addict, cut the crime rate.
Op-Ed article. The Washington Post, August 19, 2006.
Author Nora D. Volkow is the Director, National Institute on Drug Abuse. "As
a clinician," Dr. Volkow, a physician, writes, "I don't remember
ever meeting an addicted person who wanted to be addicted or who expected
that compulsive, uncontrollable, or even criminal behavior would emerge
when he or she started taking drugs."
Lieberman HR, Corkin S, Spring BJ, Wurtman RJ, Growdon JH. The effects
of dietary neurotransmitter precursors on human behavior. Am
J Clin Nutr. 1985 Aug;42(2):366-70.
Kathleen DesMaisons, PhD
901 Rio Grande Blvd. NW, Suite D-128
Albuquerque, NM 87104
Joan Mathews Larson, PhD
Health Recovery Center
3255 Hennepin Avenue South
Minneapolis, MN 55408
Julia Ross, MA, MFT
147 Lomita Drive D
Mill Valley, CA 94941
Billie J. Sahley, PhD
Pain & Stress Center
www.teenlinkusa.com specifically for teens
5282 Medical Drive, Suite 160
San Antonio, TX 78229-5379
210-614-7246; Order line: 800-669-2256