"Let thy medicine be thy food." Hippocrates,
the father of medicine, must have had the tomato in mind when he made
this statement thousands
of years ago. Now, in a world where drugs and supplements dominate,
it appears that conventional medicine has forgotten the healing power
of food. Modern science knows that food provides vitamins, minerals
and calories for energy, but does it believe that food offers any real
medical treatments? With the discovery of bioactive compounds in whole
foods, science is beginning to understand the wisdom of Hippocrates.
In no other food is this trend truer than the tomato.
The tomato is known as a powerhouse of nutrition. It contains a multitude
of vitamins and minerals that act to support health. However, it was
not until the discovery of the carotenoid lycopene that modern science
began to truly recognize the healing power of the tomato.
Lycopene has recently become the poster child of bioactive substances
found in food that demonstrate health benefits. Among these benefits,
the risk of prostate and breast cancer decreases due to lycopene.11
Lycopene appears to have a favorable effect in treating many other
cancers such as: lung, stomach, colorectal, oral, esophageal, pancreatic,
bladder and cervical cancer.11 Also, research has shown lycopene to
lower the oxidation of LDL cholesterol and reduce heart disease,1,2,5,6
as well as increase the resistance to lung cancer and exercise induced
asthma.7,9 There is even some evidence that lycopene in tomatoes may
help to prevent cataracts,32,33 age-related macular degeneration34
and sunburns.31 More and more research appears to show that lycopene
assists the immune system in protecting the body from illness.15
Despite all the wonderful health benefits of lycopene, there is one
problem. The reductionistic model of isolating single compounds for
drugs and supplements has been applied to the tomato and thus, lycopene.
New lycopene supplements are hitting the market at an astronomical
rate. Mounting evidence suggests that these lycopene neutraceuticals
do not have the same impact as tomato food products.11,23 Once lycopene
is isolated from the tomato there is risk of losing the other beneficial
effects of this superfood. It is the whole tomato that provides superior
benefit in regard to health. Lycopene acts synergistically with other
tomato compounds to provide a unique medicine. The benefits of tomatoes
and tomato products are often attributed to the carotenoid lycopene;
however, isolated lycopene appears less beneficial than using whole
tomato. Other compounds in tomatoes and tomato products that act alone
or interact with lycopene are important.23,57 This suggests that the
tomato may be "thy medicine," and lycopene is one of its
History of the Tomato
The tomato plant is native to South
America. It was introduced to Europe sometime in the 1500's by
the Spanish. Soon after the tomato arrived in Europe it became a staple
food of southern Europe. The
Italians are especially known for their love of the tomato.35
The tomato belongs to the Solanaceae family which is also known as
the "deadly" Nightshade family. Because the tomato belongs
to the Nightshade family, and the Latin name for the tomato plant is
Lycopersicon lycopersicum, which literally means "wolf peach," it
has in the past given the tomato a false reputation of being toxic.
In fact it is the tomato leaf that is toxic and not the fruit or tomato.
Lycopene, the Star Player?
The red color found in tomatoes is
due to lycopene; therefore, the redder the tomato, the higher lycopene
content. Thus, yellow and
green tomatoes are relatively low in lycopene. One explanation of
the powerful antioxidant effects of lycopene may be due to the fact
that lycopene is not converted to vitamin A (?-carotene or ß-carotene).
This suggests that red tomatoes do not have enzymes to convert lycopene
to ?-carotene or ß-carotene.11 Therefore lycopene is available
to act as a potent antioxidant in the body, which will promote health.
Lycopene is also found in other foods such as: watermelon, guava, grapefruit,
papaya and apricots as shown in the table below.
Lycopene in various foods in mg/100 wet weight
Tomato soup, condensed
Tomato powder, drum or spray dried
Sun-dried tomato in oil
from: Clinton, -S.K.1998. Lycopene: Chemistry, Biology, and Implications
for human health and
disease, Nutrition Review,56(2)P35-51.
The lycopene found in tomatoes has been studied extensively in both
humans and animals. Lycopene is now recognized as a powerful substance
in the fight against cardiovascular disease and various cancers. One
study investigated close to 40,000 women and their dietary habits,
which revealed that the consumption of 7 to 10 servings of lycopene
rich tomato products produced a 29% lower incidence of cardiovascular
disease compared to women consuming the lowest amounts. This result
was increased to 34% when women consumed two servings a week of tomato
products that contained oil.1 Other studies also suggest that oil-based
tomato products may be more influential than tomato products that do
not contain oil, in promoting cardiovascular health.3,4
Part of lycopene's benefit against heart disease may be due to
its antioxidant effects on cholesterol. Research shows that lycopene
lowers LDL cholesterol oxidation.17,20 However, lycopene may not act
alone regarding cardiovascular disease. Yamamoto et al. used an animal
model which demonstrated antithrombotic (anti-clotting) effects of
lycopene-free tomato products.2 This strongly supports the idea that
lycopene is only one of many beneficial constituents in the tomato.
Lycopene has a strong anticancer relationship. As previously mentioned,
lycopene has been shown to lower the risk of various cancers. The antioxidant
nature of lycopene may affect cancer cells through a protective effect
on cellular DNA, making it less susceptible to mutation.21,22 However,
once again, the effects that lycopene alone has on cancer seems to
be less significant than its effects from the whole tomato. This was
shown in one animal study using isolated lycopene versus tomato powder.23
Animals that received isolated lycopene had a 72% death rate as compared
to 80% of the controls.23 In contrast, the tomato powder resulted in
a 62% death rate. 23 The results indicated more of a beneficial effect
from a whole tomato product, tomato powder, than from lycopene alone
in the protection against deaths from prostate cancer.23 This study
also revealed that the low calorie, tomato based diet further increased
the protection rate.23
From available studies, the tomato's role in health has become
apparent. Most studies showing the benefit against disease involve
the tomato with its constituent, lycopene. The lycopene supplementations
used in most studies are usually done with whole tomato food concentrates.
Only a few studies, like the previously mentioned one, have compared
lycopene alone and whole tomato products in order to assess their respective
health benefits.23 The cost-benefit ratio appears to favor whole food
products over newly designed supplements. It appears that only the
whole food tomato product can deliver the full context of nutrients
and bioactive compounds to synergistically enhance the action of lycopene.
The Team Players in the Tomato
Along with lycopene, the tomato provides many other health-promoting
nutrients. It is the synergy of the full array of compounds that
make the tomato a powerful medicinal food. Tomatoes are an excellent
source of vitamin C, a nutrient known for its antioxidant action.13,42,43
The tomato also contains an abundance of other carotenoids, including
beta-carotene, making it a rich source of vitamin A.13,42,43 Some
researchers believe it is the diverse carotenoid compounds in the
tomato that enhance the action of lycopene.24 High intakes of vitamin
C and beta-carotene may prevent atherosclerosis, diabetes, colon
cancer and asthma.44-46 In addition, tomatoes are rich in fiber.13,42,43
Fiber works in concert with vitamins C and A to aid against the same
previously mentioned diseases. While vitamins C and A deter free
radical damage to cholesterol, the fiber in the tomato lowers the
amount of cholesterol from the body, by helping the body to remove
it more efficiently. Fiber in tomato slows gastric emptying and therefore
absorption of sugar into the bloodstream, positively impacting diabetes.
In addition to its indirect effects on blood sugar, fiber also assists
in removing carcinogenic compounds in the colon. This beneficially
impacts both diabetes and colon cancer in separate but complementary
mechanisms from vitamins C and A. These actions have a bearing on
obesity as well, and when the low caloric value of the tomato is
factored in, the argument is strengthened.42
The tomato has even more nutrients for its fight against disease. Potassium,
vitamin B6, folate and niacin are all present in tomato and work together
to help fight atherosclerosis.13,51,52,54 High cholesterol and homocysteine
levels are both risk factors for atherosclerosis and other diseases.
Niacin has proven effects in lowering cholesterol levels and vitamin
B6 and folate reduce high levels of homocysteine.51,54 The potassium
in the tomato works against heart disease by lowering blood pressure.52
The tomato also contains nutrients such as: vitamin K, chromium and
biotin. Vitamin K helps to build bone,53 while the latter two nutrients
aid the body's ability to process sugar and fat, which may improve
diabetes and nerve function.55,56 Riboflavin is another important nutrient
in the tomato that helps with energy metabolism and fights against
migraine headaches.25Other potentially beneficial phytochemicals in
tomatoes include: phenylpropanoids, phytosterols, and flavonoids.35
These phytochemicals beneficially influence the body in many different
ways that science is just now beginning to realize.
Unlike isolated supplements or drugs which have one or two main actions,
tomato-based food products deliver many nutrients with multiple mechanisms
of action.12,13 These manifold actions create a potent preventative
medicine in the fight against aging and disease.
The Tomato is Better Cooked
The wonderful thing about the tomato
is the many different culinary ways it can be used. It is widely used
in salads, sauces, soups,
and is the base of one of America's favorite condiments, ketchup.
The tomato is without a doubt one of America's favorite health
foods. Considering the amount of tomato lycopene consumed in the
form of ketchup and pizza sauce, it makes one wonder what our rate
of heart disease and cancer would be without this food.1,37 The
amount of beneficial nutrients in the tomato is significant with
liberal consumption of tomato-based products. It seems the best way
to obtain the benefits is through more concentrated and cooked forms
of the tomato. The Mediterranean diet includes high amounts of these
foods. For example, Italians are known for their love of tomato sauce.
They use it as a dip, on pastas, in salads and even as soup. Tomato
sauce may be the perfect way to obtain the beneficial lycopene and
other compounds from the tomato. Research shows lycopene to be most
abundant in tomato sauces and pastes.30 In addition, the slow cooking
process of tomato sauce further enhances the concentration and absorption
of the tomato's lycopene and other nutrients.14 Healthy oils,
such as olive oil added to traditional sauces also aid in the absorption
and utilization of the tomato lycopene and other carotenoids.3,4
Rarely do we find a healthier, more economical means of protecting
health than with tomato sauce.
In order to maximize the health benefits of tomatoes and tomato products,
it is best to consume organic tomatoes and canned tomatoes in non-lead
containers. Canned food products in the US do not contain lead anymore,
so this shouldn't be an issue. Virtually all foods in the US
with the exception of organic food have trace amounts of pesticides.
There is mounting evidence that by avoiding trace amounts of pesticides,
one's health will be improved.
Tomato Sauce: the Ultimate Medicine Cabinet
Tomatoes in the form of sauce deliver heart healthy and disease-fighting
compounds. Spices cooked in tomato sauce also offer an increased
opportunity to deliver medicine that has the potential of preventing
disease. Garlic and oregano act as potent antimicrobial agents through
the compounds allicin,58 thymol,59 and carvacrol.59 The cholesterol-lowering
effects of garlic are also well-documented,26-28 and so are the antioxidant
actions of rosmarinic acid found in oregano.27,28 The addition of
rosemary provides even more rosmarininc acid, as well as other antioxidant
compounds.28 Basil provides even greater antioxidant actions through
the flavonoids orientin and vicenin.29 The volatile oils in basil
provide additional antimicrobial effects.29 Also, eugenol (a phytochemical
in basil) has COX-inhibiting activity which is a target enzyme of
The addition of spices to tomato sauce provides a unique means of delivering
medicinal compounds to the body. The sauce can be prepared in such
a way as to tailor medicine to an individual. For example, someone
with an infection would benefit from extra garlic, rosemary and basil;
while someone with a history of heart disease may want to include all
of the above with an emphasis on the antioxidant herbs, rosemary and
basil. Also, signature sauces can add other medicinal foods such as
onion60 and pepper.61 In this way, tomato sauce acts as a unique medicine
cabinet with interconnected beneficial effects on the body.
As previously mentioned, the best benefits that tomato sauce has to
offer relates to heart disease.6,12,20 The lycopene-rich tomato base
with its synergistic nutrients is a powerful protector of heart disease.
When the sauce is made in the traditional Italian fashion, with garlic,
oregano, parsley and all the other spices, a tremendous amount of antioxidant,
antithrombotic, and anti-inflammatory action is added.2,17,29 This
list of medicinal actions would make any drug maker envious.
Considerations of the Tomato from a Chinese Medicine Perspective
Using food as medicine is an ancient
tradition in China that dates back to more than three thousand years
ago. In China, food therapy
is known as Shi Liao.37 In fact, there are restaurants in China that
specialize in serving medicinal foods, which are called, "Yao
Shan" (medicated diet).37
The tomato has the properties of being sweet, sour, and slightly cold.
It builds the yin, strengthens the stomach, promotes digestion, and
cleans the liver.36,37 It is used in cases of diminished appetite,
indigestion, food retention, anorexia, and constipation.36 Due to its
cooling nature and affinity for the liver, the tomato relieves liver
heat, thus helping to alleviate high blood pressure, red eyes, and
Possible Adverse Effects of the Tomato
Although rare, there are possible adverse effects of consuming tomatoes
as there are in any food or medicine.
Tomatoes are one of the few foods that contain oxalates. The problem
with oxalates in food is that they can form tiny little insoluble crystals
with sharp edges which are irritating to tissue. People that suffer
from kidney problems, gallbladder problems, gout, or rheumatoid arthritis
may need to avoid foods with oxalates.38 Also, oxalates can impair
calcium absorption. People who need to increase calcium through supplementation
should consider avoiding foods rich in oxalates.
Tomatoes can also be associated with allergic reactions. If food allergies
are suspected, then one may want to avoid tomatoes until the allergenic
food is identified.
Another possible effect of eating high amounts of tomatoes or other
foods with high amounts of lycopene is called lycopenaemia. Like other
carotenoids, lycopene will produce a yellowish pigmentation of the
skin if taken in excess.41 This may be only a cosmetic concern as there
is no known documentation of other adverse side effects. However, one
benefit to high levels of lycopene in the skin is its ability to act
as a natural sunscreen, offering extra protection from UV-light.40
The Tomato Prescription
Hippocrates' famous saying holds truer today than ever before
in history. The idea of prescribing food is a foreign concept to most
healthcare providers. This is a disappointing fact due to the rising
cost of health care and prescription drugs. The foods we regularly
consume are devoid of nutrition, full of dyes and chemicals, and offer
little in the way of bioactive medicinal compounds. Even during a trip
down the local health food aisle you will be confronted with refined
cereals and organic junk food. The fast paced, time-is-money society
of today has little time to stop and think about what is or is not
in food. Luckily, tomatoes and their products are some of the world's
oldest "fast foods." Tomatoes can quickly be added to salads,
soups and made into sauce. Research shows that the inclusion of cooked
and concentrated tomato products consumed several times a week decreases
incidence of disease.12 Tomato products such as sauce provide old world
medicine with new world convenience, in a way that would make Hippocrates
The Naturopathic Health Clinic of North Carolina
114 L Reynolda Village
Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27106 USA
1. Sesso HD, Buring JE, Norkus EP, Gaziano JM. Plasma lycopene, other
carotenoids, and retinol and the risk of cardiovascular disease in
women., Am J Clin Nutr. 2004
2. Yamamoto J, Taka T, Yamada K, Ijiri Y, Murakami M, Hirata Y, Naemura
A, Hashimoto M, Yamashita T, Oiwa K, Seki J, Suganuma H, Inakuma T,
Yoshida T. Tomatoes have natural anti-thrombotic effects. Br
3. Lee A, Thurnham DI, Chopra M. Consumption of tomato products with
olive oil but not sunflower oil increases the antioxidant activity
of plasma. Free Radic Biol Med.
2000 Nov 15;29(10):1051-5.
4. Clark RM, Yao L, She L, Furr HC. A comparison of lycopene and astaxanthin
absorption from corn oil and olive oil emulsions. Lipids.
5. Weisburger JH. Lycopene and tomato products in health promotion.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2002
6. Kris-Etherton PM, Hecker KD, Bonanome A, Coval SM, Binkoski AE,
Hilpert KF, Griel AE, Etherton TD. Bioactive compounds in foods: their
role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Am
2002 Dec 30;113 Suppl 9B:71S-88S.
7. Ito Y, Wakai K, Suzuki K, Tamakoshi A, Seki N, Ando M, Nishino Y,
Kondo T, Watanabe Y, Ozasa K, Ohno Y; JACC Study Group. Serum carotenoids
and mortality from lung cancer: a case-control study nested in the
Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) study. Cancer Sci. 2003
8. Arab L, Steck-Scott S, Fleishauer AT. Lycopene and the lung. Exp
Biol Med (Maywood). 2002 Nov;227(10):894-9.
9. Neuman I, Nahum H, Ben-Amotz A. Reduction of exercise-induced asthma
oxidative stress by lycopene, a natural antioxidant. Allergy.
10. Sengupta A, Das S. The anti-carcinogenic role of lycopene, abundantly
present in tomato. Eur J Cancer Prev.
11. Giovannucci E., Tomatoes, tomato-based products, lycopene, and
cancer: review of the epidemiologic literature. J Natl Cancer
1999 Feb 17;91(4):317-31.
12. Weisburger JH. Evaluation of the evidence on the role of tomato
products in disease prevention. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med.
13. Beecher GR. Nutrient content of tomatoes and tomato products. Proc
Soc Exp Biol Med. 1998 Jun;218(2):98-100.
14. Shi J, Le Maguer M. Lycopene in tomatoes: chemical and physical
properties affected by food processing. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr.
15. Chew BP, Park JS. Carotenoid action on the immune response. J
16. Jayasinghe C, Gotoh N, Aoki T, Wada S. Phenolics composition and
antioxidant activity of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). J
Agric Food Chem. 2003 Jul 16;51(15):4442-9.
17. Fuhrman B, Volkova N, Rosenblat M, Aviram M. Lycopene synergistically
inhibits LDL oxidation in combination with vitamin E, glabridin, rosmarinic
acid, carnosic acid, or garlic. Antioxid Redox Signal.
18. Gann PH, Khachik F. Tomatoes or lycopene versus prostate cancer:
is evolution anti-reductionist? J Natl Cancer Inst.
2003 Nov 5;95(21):1563-5.
19. Watzl B, Bub A, Briviba K, Rechkemmer G. Supplementation of a low-carotenoid
diet with tomato or carrot juice modulates immune functions in healthy
men. Ann Nutr Metab. 2003;47(6):255-61.
20. Rao AV. Lycopene, tomatoes, and the prevention of coronary heart
disease. Exp Biol Med (Maywood).
21. Porrini M, Riso P. Lymphocyte lycopene concentration and DNA protection
from oxidative damage is increased in women after a short period of
tomato consumption. J Nutr.
22. Riso P, Pinder A, Santangelo A, Porrini M. Does tomato consumption
effectively increase the resistance of lymphocyte DNA to oxidative
damage? Am J Clin Nutr. 1999
23. Boileau TW, Liao Z, Kim S, Lemeshow S, Erdman JW Jr, Clinton SK.
Prostate carcinogenesis in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU)-testosterone-treated
rats fed tomato powder, lycopene, or energy-restricted diets. J
Natl Cancer Inst. 2003 Nov 5;95(21):1578-86.
24. Heber D, Lu QY. Overview of mechanisms of action of lycopene. Exp
Biol Med (Maywood). 2002 Nov;227(10):920-3.
25. Breen C, Crowe A, Roelfsema HJ, Saluja IS, Guenter D. High-dose
riboflavin for prophylaxis of migraine. Can Fam Physician.
26. Banerjee SK, Maulik SK. Effect of garlic on cardiovascular disorders:
a review. Nutr J. 2002 Nov 19;1(1):4.
27. Dragland S, Senoo H, Wake K, Holte K, Blomhoff R. Several culinary
and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants.
J Nutr. 2003 May;133(5):1286-90.
28. Martinez-Tome M, Jimenez AM, Ruggieri S, Frega N, Strabbioli R,
Murcia MA. Antioxidant properties of Mediterranean spices compared
with common food additives. J Food Prot.
29. Kelm MA, Nair MG, Strasburg GM, DeWitt DL. Antioxidant and cyclooxygenase
inhibitory phenolic compounds from Ocimum sanctum Linn. Phytomedicine.
30. Clinton, -S.K.1998. Lycopene: Chemistry, Biology, and Implications
for human health and disease, Nutrition Review,56(2)P35-51.
31. Stahl W, Heinrich U, Wiseman S, Eichler O, Sies H, Tronnier H.,
Dietary tomato paste protects against ultraviolet light-induced erythema
in humans, J Nutr. 2001 May;131(5):1449-51
32. Pollack A, Madar Z, Eisner Z, Nyska A, Oren P., Inhibitory effect
of lycopene on cataract development in galactosemic rats., Metab
Pediatr Syst Ophthalmol. 1996-1997;19-20:31-6.
33. Mohanty I, Joshi S, Trivedi D, Srivastava S, Gupta SK., Lycopene
prevents sugar-induced morphological changes and modulates antioxidant
status of human lens epithelial cells., Br J Nutr.
34. Khachik F, Carvalho L, Bernstein PS, Muir GJ, Zhao DY, Katz NB.,
Exp Chemistry, distribution, and metabolism of tomato carotenoids and
their impact on human health., Biol Med (Maywood).
36. Pitchford, Paul, Healing with Whole Foods (Oriental
traditions and Modern Nutrition), North Atlantic Books, 1993.
37. Silvano Gallus, Bosetti Christina, Negri Eva, et.al., Does pizza
protect against cancer?, International Journal of Cancer, July
2003; 107(2): 283-284.
38. Lu, Yuanming, TCM Whole Foods Nutrition, Bastyr University, Classnotes,
40. Alaluf S, Heinrich U, Stahl W, Tronnier H, Wiseman S., Dietary
Carotenoids Contribute to Normal Human Skin Color and UV Photosensitivity,
J. Nutr. 132:399-403, 2002.
41. La Placa M, Pazzaglia M, Tosti A., Lycopenaemia. J Eur Acad
Dermatol Venereol. 2000 Jul;14(4):311-2.
42. Fortin, Francois, Editorial Director. The Visual Foods Encyclopedia.
Macmillan, New York.
43. Ensminger AH, Esminger M. K. J. e. al. Food for Health:
A Nutrition Encyclopedia. Clovis, California:
Pegus Press; 1986.
44. Krajcovicova-Kudlackova M, Dusinska M. Oxidative DNA damage in
relation to nutrition. Neoplasma.
45. Routine vitamin supplementation to prevent cancer and cardiovascular
disease. Nutr Clin Care. 2003
46. Harik-Khan RI, Muller DC, Wise RA. Serum vitamin levels and the
risk of asthma in children. Am J Epidemiol.
2004 Feb 15;159(4):351-7.
47. Brown DJ, Goodman J. A review of vitamins A, C, and E and their
relationship to cardiovascular disease. Clin Excell Nurse Pract. 1998
48. Fletcher AE, Breeze E, Shetty PS. Antioxidant vitamins and mortality
in older persons: findings from the nutrition add-on study to the Medical
Research Council Trial of Assessment and Management of Older People
in the Community. Am J Clin Nutr.
49. Sesso HD, Buring JE, Norkus EP, Gaziano JM. Plasma lycopene, other
carotenoids, and retinol and the risk of cardiovascular disease in
women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004
50. Eichholzer M, Stahelin HB, Gey KF. Inverse correlation between
essential antioxidants in plasma and subsequent risk to develop cancer,
ischemic heart disease and stroke respectively: 12-year follow-up of
the Prospective Basel Study. EXS.
51. Malik S, Kashyap ML. Niacin, lipids, and heart disease. Curr
Cardiol Rep. 2003 Nov;5(6):470-6.
52. He FJ, MacGregor GA. Potassium: more beneficial effects. Climacteric.
2003 Oct;6 Suppl 3:36-48.
53. Bugel S. Vitamin K and bone health. Proc Nutr Soc. 2003 Nov;62(4):839-43.
54. Lee BJ, Huang MC, Chung LJ, Cheng CH, Lin KL, Su KH, Huang YC.
Folic acid and vitamin B12 are more effective than vitamin B6 in lowering
fasting plasma homocysteine concentration in patients with coronary
artery disease. Eur J Clin Nutr.
55. Anderson RA. Chromium in the prevention and control of diabetes, Diabetes
Metab, 2000 Feb; 26(1): 22-7.
56. Head K, Chowka P. Controlling blood sugar with nutrients and botanicals.
Adv Nurse Pract. 2003 Feb; 11(2);
57. Heber D, Lu QY. Overview of mechanisms of action of lycopene. Exp
Biol Med (Maywood). 2002 Nov;227(10):920-3.
58. Ankri S, Mirelman D. Antimicrobial properties of allicin from garlic.
Microbes Infect. 1999 Feb;1(2):125-9.
59. Arcila-Lozano CC, Loarca-Pina G, Lecona-Uribe S, Gonzalez de Mejia
E. Oregano: properties, composition and biological activity Arch
Latinoam Nutr. 2004 Mar;54(1):100-11